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88 Cards in this Set

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Which of the following functions is associated with the blood?




delivery of oxygen to tissue cells




transport of digestive enzymes to the small intestine




maintenance of DNA content of egg cells




transport of neurotransmitters across synapses




electrical stimulation of the heart

delivery of oxygen to tissue cells

If a blood buffer is absent, what function of the blood would be compromised?




maintenance of body temperature


regulation of pH


clot formation


transport of ions


protection against foreign substances

maintenance of body temperature

Plasma is ____ while formed elements are ____.




a blood gas; blood clots




the liquid portion of blood; the cells




lacking in protein; regulators of blood osmolality




the cellular portion of blood; acellular components




mostly protein; the matrix

the liquid portion of blood; the cells

The “buffy” coat of the middle layer of a centrifuged blood sample is composed of:




platelets and leukocytes.




leukocytes.




platelets.




erythrocytes.




erythrocytes and leukocytes.

platelets and leukocytes.

The total blood volume is ____ plasma.




50%


90%


75%


55%

The total blood volume is ____ plasma.

The total blood volume in the average adult is about __________ in males and __________ in females.




4-5L; 5-6L


5-6L; 4-5L


both are 4-5L


both are 5-6L

5-6L; 4-5L

The “buffy” coat of the middle layer of a centrifuged blood sample is composed of




Platelets and leukocytes


Leukocytes


Platelets


Erythrocytes


Erythrocytes and leukocytes

Platelets and leukocytes

Which most closely approximates the percentage of water in plasma by weight?




1%


25%


46%


92%


98%

92%

Which plasma protein is correctly matched to its function?




fibrinogen - transport of fatty acids


albumin - helps to fight infection


globulin - transport and immunity


globulin - blood clotting

globulin - transport and immunity

The type of plasma protein that forms the threadlike proteins formed in blood clotting is ______.




sodium.


albumin.


globulin.


fibrinogen.


fibrinolysis.

Fibrinogen

The only formed elements that possess a nucleus when mature are the




Thrombocytes.


erythrocytes.


leukocytes.


platelets.


RBCs.

leukocytes

Which blood component is NOT correctly matched with its function?




erythrocytes - transport oxygen




leukocytes - protect against disease




platelets - phagocytize bacteria




plasma proteins - maintain blood osmotic pressure; involved in clotting




monocytes - become macrophages

platelets - phagocytize bacteria

Neutrophils of the blood are derived from a population of stem cells called




Lymphoblasts.


proerythroblasts.


myeloblasts.


megakaryoblasts.


monoblasts.

myeloblasts

Red blood cells will develop from




proerythroblasts.


monoblasts.


myeloblasts.


megakaryoblasts.


lymphoblasts.

proerythroblasts

An increase in hemoglobin increases




the ability of the blood to carry oxygen to various tissues.



the quantity of plasma protein available for blood clotting.




the leukocyte count.




the body's immune response.




the osmotic pressure of the blood.

the ability of the blood to carry oxygen to various tissues.

Mr. Smith moved from a low altitude to a high altitude and experienced an increase in RBCs. Which of the following caused this increase?




the lower temperature present at higher altitudes




the lower oxygen concentration seen at higher altitudes




the increased metabolic rate seen at higher altitudes




the increased CO2 retention that occurs at high altitudes




He exercised more.

the lower oxygen concentration seen at higher altitudes

Most fetal hemoglobin has




2 alpha globins and 2 beta globins.




2 alpha globins and 2 gamma globins.




2 beta globins and 2 gamma globins.




4 alpha globins.

2 alpha globins and 2 gamma globins.

When defective erythrocytes are broken down,




They are removed from the blood by the lungs.




bilirubin is formed from the breakdown of hemoglobin.




their heme groups are converted into amino acids.




their iron is excreted into the small intestine.




their components cannot be recycled.

bilirubin is formed from the breakdown of hemoglobin.

In adults, red blood cells are made in one place, spend most of their lifespan in another, and most are finally destroyed in yet another place. Which choice lists these locations in the correct chronological order?




bone marrow; blood vessels; spleen




bone marrow; spleen; blood vessels




spleen; blood vessels; spleen




blood vessels; spleen; bone marrow




spleen; blood vessels; bone marrow

bone marrow; blood vessels; spleen

Which of the following is an agranulocyte?




eosinophil


basophil


neutrophil


monocyte


erythrocyte

monocyte

Which of the following cell types is incorrectly matched with its description?




neutrophils - most numerous WBCs




basophils - release histamine




lymphocytes - become macrophages




monocytes - largest of the WBCs




eosinophils - attack worm parasites

lymphocytes - become macrophages

Platelets




are also known as thrombocytes.




are actually fragments of cells.




play a role in preventing blood loss.




can become sticky when exposed to connective tissue




All of these choices are correct.

All of these choices are correct.

Platelets are continually produced in the red bone marrow by cells called _____________.




progranulocytes


plasma cells


myelocytes


megakaryocytes


proerythroblasts

megakaryocytes

Platelets play an important role in preventing blood loss by




releasing heparin to aid in the formation of a platelet plug.




promoting the formation of clots to seal off wounds in vessels.




producing enzymes that destroy inflammatory chemicals.




All of these are important functions of platelets

promoting the formation of clots to seal off wounds in vessels.

As a platelet plug forms at an injury site platelets become activated and their cytoplasm:




degranulates as they release chemicals such as ADP and thromboxane A2.




degranulates as they release chemicals such as fibrinogen and prothrombin.




becomes granular as they take up chemicals such as ADP and thromboxane A2.




becomes granular as they take up chemicals such as fibrinogen and prothrombin.

degranulates as they release chemicals such as ADP and thromboxane A2.

During platelet plug formation




platelets stick to the exposed collagen fibers of injured vessels.




activated platelets release fibrinogen.




thrombin is released from endothelial cells.




vitamin K production increases.




platelets multiply.

platelets stick to the exposed collagen fibers of injured vessels.

Choose the arrangement that lists the chemicals in the order in which they would be used for coagulation.




(1) thrombin


(2) fibrinogen


(3) prothrombinase


(4) activated factor XII

4, 3, 1, 2

Aspirin inhibits platelet plug formation by




blocking the binding of platelets to collagen.




interfering with the synthesis of prostaglandins.




blocking the effects of serotonin.




making the platelet surface less sticky.




stimulating the release of heparin.

interfering with the synthesis of prostaglandins.

Aspirin




inhibits the action of the enzyme cyclooxygenase (COX).




promotes thromboxane synthesis.




promotes prostaglandin synthesis.




prevents hemorrhaging during delivery of a baby.

inhibits the action of the enzyme cyclooxygenase (COX).

The enzyme cyclooxygenase (COX) enzyme converts arachidonic acid (a precursor molecule for eiconisoids) into a prostaglandin that can then be converted into thromboxane. Aspirin has been shown to be a COX-inhibitor. Knowing these facts, why is aspirin given as a preventative medication for those with cardiovascular diseases?




Aspirin promotes COX and thromboxane synthesis and therefore promotes fibrinolysis for existing clots.




By inhibiting COX, aspirin also inhibits thromboxane, and the breakdown for existing clots is increased.




Aspirin reduces platelet activation.




Aspirin inhibits prostaglandin synthesis and therefore inhibits thromboxane synthesis.




Aspirin acts by inhibiting prostaglandins; thus the blood becomes thinner.

Aspirin inhibits prostaglandin synthesis and therefore inhibits thromboxane synthesis.

If an expectant mother ingests aspirin near the end of pregnancy, thromboxane synthesis is inhibited and several effects are possible. Which of the following are possible outcomes?




The mother can experience excessive bleeding after delivery.




The baby can exhibit numerous localized hemorrhages called petechiae over the surface of its body.




The infant, the mother, or both may die as a result of excessive bleeding.




All of the answers are complications of aspirin ingestion during pregnancy.

All of the answers are complications of aspirin ingestion during pregnancy.

In the extrinsic pathway, damaged tissues release




Activated factor V.


calcium.


factor VII.


thromboplastin (tissue factor III)


factor XII.

thromboplastin (tissue factor III)

Arrange the following events of coagulation in proper sequence.




(1) prothrombin → thrombin


(2) fibrinogen → fibrin


(3) activation of factor XII


(4) formation of prothrombinase

3, 4, 1, 2

A person with type B blood




has antigen A.




has anti-A antibodies .




will have a transfusion reaction if given type B blood.




has anti-B antibodies.




can receive type A blood.

has anti-A antibodies .

Which blood type is considered the universal recipient?




Type A


Type B


Type AB


Type O

Type AB

Each hemoglobin molecule




has one heme group.




contains two polypeptide chains.




transports four oxygen molecules.




has two iron atoms and two globin chains.




transports one oxygen molecule.

transports four oxygen molecules.

Type A blood

Erythrocytes have surface antigen A

Type B blood

Erythrocytes have surface antigen B

Type AB blood

Erythrocytes have surface antigens A and B

Type O blood

Erythrocytes have neither surface antigen A nor B

RhoGam injections are given to




desensitize the fetus.




activate fetal Rh antigens.




protect the father.




prevent sensitization of the mother.




change the mother's blood type.

prevent sensitization of the mother.

Hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) occurs when




an Rh-positive woman is carrying an Rh-positive fetus.




an Rh-positive woman is carrying an Rh-negative fetus.




an Rh-negative woman is carrying an Rh-negative fetus.




an Rh-negative woman is carrying an Rh-positive fetus.

an Rh-negative woman is carrying an Rh-positive fetus.

The hematocrit is




an estimate of blood flow/hour.


the number of WBCs per mm3.


the amount of hemoglobin by weight in the blood.


the percentage of RBCs in a given volume of blood.


the number of RBCs in the body.

the percentage of RBCs in a given volume of blood.

When trying to diagnose an infection that alters the percentages of leukocyte types found in the blood, it is useful for clinicians to perform a:




white blood cell differential count.




red blood cell differential count.




total cell count for red and white blood cells.




blood typing.

white blood cell differential count.

Which of the following is mismatched?




aplastic anemia - bone marrow fails to produce erythrocytes




hemolytic anemia - increased destruction of erythrocytes




pernicious anemia - loss of blood from the body




iron deficiency anemia - lack of iron absorption for erythropoiesis




hemorrhagic anemia - loss of blood from the body

pernicious anemia - loss of blood from the body

Assuming a person has normal blood values, rank the following blood components from highest percentage to lowest percentage.




WBCs, plasma, RBCs




RBCs, WBCs, plasma




plasma, RBCs, WBCs




plasma, WBCs, RBCs




WBCs, RBCs, plasma

plasma, RBCs, WBCs

Which of the following is mismatched?




aplastic anemia - bone marrow fails to produce erythrocytes




hemolytic anemia - increased destruction of erythrocytes




pernicious anemia - loss of blood from the body




iron deficiency anemia - lack of iron absorption for erythropoiesis




hemorrhagic anemia - loss of blood from the body

pernicious anemia - loss of blood from the body

A white blood cell engulfing a bacterium is an example of blood functioning in




protection.


elimination.


maintenance.


transportation.


communication

protection

Which type of material is NOT transported by the blood?




blood gases


nutrients


lactic acid


neurotransmitters


hormones

neurotransmitters

Blood consists of a matrix of plasma and cells; blood is a subtype of ______ tissue.




epithelial


glandular


connective


areolar

connective

Which of the following plasma proteins is most abundant?




albumin


globulins


fibrinogen


immunoglobulins


hemoglobin

albumin

Plasma




is one of the formed elements.




is the liquid matrix of the blood.




transports waste products but not nutrients.




accounts for less than half of the blood volume.




is serum plus formed elements.

is the liquid matrix of the blood.

Functions of plasma proteins include




body temperature regulation.




regulation of osmotic pressure.




transportation of oxygen and carbon dioxide.




serving as a source of energy for metabolism.

regulation of osmotic pressure.

Which of the following is NOT true of plasma?




Plasma is about 91% water.




Plasma is a colloid.




Plasma volume can change drastically.




The color of plasma is yellow.

Plasma volume can change drastically.

Hemocytoblast stem cells




are specialized cells.




are found in yellow bone marrow.




form branches of trees.




are abundant in the plasma.




give rise to all formed elements in the blood.

give rise to all formed elements in the blood.

Which of the following is (are) associated with decreased hematopoiesis?




hemorrhage




vitamin B12 deficiency




iron deficiency anemia




restricted blood flow to the kidney




both vitamin B12 deficiency and iron deficiency anemia

both vitamin B12 deficiency and iron deficiency anemia

Which of the following phrases is least likely to be used in describing erythrocytes?




biconcave cells




cells can change shape




cytoplasm contains hemoglobin




nucleus is centrally located




main role is transporting blood gases

nucleus is centrally located

Mature erythrocytes




have a centrally located nucleus.




are actually just cellular fragments.




contain hemoglobin in their cytoplasm.




mature from cells called megakaryocytes.




do not contain protein.

contain hemoglobin in their cytoplasm.

Hemoglobin




gives white blood cells their color.




transports both oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.




is normally found in both the plasma and erythrocytes.




catalyzes the reaction that forms carbonic acid.




is only used once then decomposed.

transports both oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.

Approximately ______% of oxygen is transported in the blood bound to hemoglobin. The remaining oxygen is dissolved in plasma.




1.5%


7%


70%


98.5%

98.5%

Which of the following is NOT a method of carbon dioxide transport in the blood?




combined with hemoglobin


dissolved in the plasma


as bicarbonate ions in the plasma


held in the depression of a red blood cell

held in the depression of a red blood cell

What may be affected if the enzyme carbonic anhydrase was not made in the body?




conversion of hemoglobin to oxyhemoglobin




conversion of carbon dioxide to bicarbonate ion




transport of oxygen by hemoglobin




hemolysis of red blood cells

conversion of carbon dioxide to bicarbonate ion

Which of the following is NOT a form of hemoglobin found in the developing human?




adult




embryonic




adolescent




fetal

adolescent

What gas is also carried by a beta-globin that may help regulate blood pressure?




carbon monoxide




carbon dioxide




nitrogen




nitric oxide

nitric oxide

The oxygenated form of hemoglobin is called




oxyhemoglobin.


deoxyhemoglobin.


carboxyhemoglobin.


carbaminohemoglobin.


loaded hemoglobin.

oxyhemoglobin

Iron




is needed to produce hemoglobin.




is a plasma coagulation factor.




is the binding site for carbon dioxide on the hemoglobin molecule.




prevents carbon monoxide from binding to hemoglobin.




interferes with the normal function of hemoglobin.

is needed to produce hemoglobin.

Which of the following cell types is an immature red blood cell?




erythrocyte


reticulocyte


thrombocyte


monocyte


leukocyte

reticulocyte

Erythropoiesis does not require




iron.


vitamin B12.


folate.


vitamin K.


All of these are required.

vitamin K.

Which of the following would lead to increased erythropoiesis?




increased environmental O2 levels




increased erythropoietin levels




increased blood pH




increased blood pressure




increased CO2 levels

increased erythropoietin levels

Erythropoietin




is a product of the kidney.




inhibits the production of erythrocytes.




is produced in response to increased blood pressure.




is found both in the plasma and inside red blood cells.




is produced by the red bone marrow.

is a product of the kidney.

When erythrocytes are destroyed, which of the following events occurs?




Urine output increases.




Iron is secreted into the bile.




Heme is transported by transferrin to the liver.




The globin portion of the molecule is broken down into amino acids.




Bile is manufactured by the gall bladder.

The globin portion of the molecule is broken down into amino acids.

Which of the following formed elements do not have chromosomes?




erythrocytes




reticulocytes




erythroblasts




erythrocytes and reticulocytes




erythrocytes, reticulocytes and erythroblasts

erythrocytes and reticulocytes

Bilirubin




is found in white blood cells.




may be reused in erythropoiesis.




is formed from the globin groups of hemoglobin.




is made from bile.




may build up in the circulation and cause jaundice.

may build up in the circulation and cause jaundice.

Randolf was suffering from severe hepatitis. His skin appeared to be jaundiced. That color change was due to




increased heme in his circulatory system.




increased globin in his circulatory system.




increased bilirubin in his circulatory system.




decreased rate of globin breakdown.




increased globin in his circulatory system, increased bilirubin in his circulatory system and decreased rate of globin breakdown.

increased bilirubin in his circulatory system.

On which chromosome is there a mutation that leads to sickle cell anemia?




chromosome 3


chromosome 11


chromosome 14


chromosome 21

chromosome 21

Which of the following is NOT a consequence of sickle-cell anemia?




Red blood cells take on the sickle shape when oxygen levels are low.




Sickle-shaped red blood cells can become lodged in capillaries.




Tissue damage from decreased blood supply.




Sickle-shaped red blood cells are less likely to rupture.

Sickle-shaped red blood cells are less likely to rupture.

Which of the following statements regarding leukocytes is TRUE?




Leukocytes have no nucleus.




Leukocytes play a role in oxygen transport.




Leukocytes are the largest of the formed elements.




Leukocytes are only fragments of cells. There is only one kind of leukocyte.

Leukocytes are the largest of the formed elements.

The most numerous of the leukocytes is the




neutrophil.


basophil.


eosinophil.


lymphocyte.


monocyte.

neutrophil

Lymphocytes




are the largest of the leukocytes.




migrate to lymphatic tissue.




produce histamine.




release heparin.




are phagocytic.

migrate to lymphatic tissue.

The ability of white blood cells to leave the circulation and enter tissues is called




chemotaxis.




diapedesis.




margination.




intrusion.




exocytosis.

diapedesis

When a person develops a sore throat, white blood cells are drawn to the area of infection by a process called




chemotaxis.


diapedesis.


margination.


ameboid movement.


attraction.

chemotaxis

A person with an increased eosinophil count might be suffering from




an allergic reaction.




a viral infection.




an acute bacterial infection.




a chronic bacterial infection.




a head cold.

an allergic reaction.

Macrophages are derived from




neutrophils.


lymphocytes.


monocytes.


basophils.


eosinophils.

monocytes

Which white blood cells function primarily as phagocytotic cells?




monocytes and lymphocytes




basophils and neutrophils




eosinophils and monocytes




neutrophils and monocytes

neutrophils and monocytes

Which of the following is a stage of hemostasis?




coagulation




erythropoiesis




platelet formation




vascular dilation




agglutination

coagulation

The nervous system and certain chemicals can cause the constriction of a blood vessel. This is known as




platelet adhesion.


vascular spasm.


hemostasis.


coagulation.

vascular spasm.

If an individual had a reduction in the number of platelets they would have




leukopenia.


polycythemia.


thrombocytopenia.


anemia.

thrombocytopenia

If an individual has a deficiency of hemoglobin due to the inability of the red bone marrow to produce red blood cells, they would have




aplastic anemia.


pernicious anemia.


thalassemia.


hemolytic anemia.

aplastic anemia