Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/69

Click to flip

69 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Thyroid hormones are ___________?
Amino acid derived
In the cell membrane adenylate cyclase-cyclic AMP system, the second messenger activates the enzyme ________________.
Protein Kinase A
In the cell membrane adenylate cyclase-cyclic AMP system, the activated G protein activates the enzyme ___________________.
Adenylate cyclase
What second messenger of the Phospholipase C system opens Ca++ channels of the endoplasmic reticulum?
IP3
Oxytocin and ADH bind to what type of GPCR System?
Phospholipase C-IP3/DAG
A hormone that is synthesized and secreted in an inactive stated and then activated by target tissue enzymes (thyroxine is an example) is termed a (n) ________________.
Prehormone
The secretion of the catecholamines epinephrine and norepinephrine is controlled by Sympathetic Preganglionic nerve fibers. What type of control mechanism is involved?
Neural
What hypothalamic nuclei synthesize the hormones secreted by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland?
Paraventricular and Supraoptic
The secretion of PTH by the parathyroid glands is controlled by the blood [Ca++]. What type of mechanism is involved?
Humoral
The cell receptors for hormone binding may be located at each o the following locations in the cells : in the nucleus; bound to the cell membrane; in the cytoplasm of the cell.

Thyroid hormones bind to which receptors?
Receptors in the nucleus.
What type of feedback is described as inhibition of tropic hormone secretion, by the target tissue hormone, acting on either the hypothalamus or the pituitary gland?
Long loop
What type of feedback is described as the pituitary gland tropic hormone acts back on pituitary gland cells to inhibit secretion of the tropic hormone?
Auto feedback
The hormones of the anterior pituitary gland are each secreted by a specific cell type. Which specific cell type secretes the hormone Prolactin.
Lactotrope
Which specific cell type secretes Growth Hormone
Somatotrope
What hormone produces the condition Myxedema when the hormone is hyposecreted in adults?
Thyroxine
What hormones produce the condition Addison's Disease when the hormones are hyposecreted in adults?
Cortisol and Aldosterone
What hormone produces the condition Cushing's Syndrome when the hormone is hypersecreted in adults?
Cortisol
THS
Stimulates secretion of T3 and T4 by the thyroid gland.
ACTH
Stimulates secretion of Cortisol from the adrenal cortex.
GH
Stimulates secretion of somatomedins (IGFs) by liver cells.
ADH
Produces concentrated urine by stimulating water reabsorption by the kidney.
Identify the hormone controlled by the given releasing/inhibiting hormomes.

CRH
ACTH
What effect does increases GH secretion have on liver cell glycogenolysis?
Increase
What effect would decreased blood [cortisol] have on ACTH secretion by the pituitary gland?
Increase
What effect does decreased aldosterone secretion have on kidney reabsorption of Na+?
Decrease
What effect does increased cortisol sevretion have on liver glycogenolysis?
Increase
What effect does insulin secretion have on uptake of glucose by skeletal muscle, liver cells, and adipose tissue?
Increase
What effect does glucagon have on gluconogenesis in liver cells?
Increase
What is the main nonprotein N component of plasma? This component is measured in the BUN blood test.
Urea
Which class of plasma protein is represented by antibodies?
Gamma Globulins
Most of the plasma proteins are synthesized by what organ?
Liver
In the control of erythrocyte production, the ________ sectetes the hormone _________ in resonse to hypoxia?
Kidneys, erythropoeitin
True/False: When molecular oxygen binds to Hb in the RBC, the iron atom of each Hume molecule normally oxidizes.
False
The term which describes an excessive number of erythrocytes (> 6 million per ul) in the blood is ____.
Polycythemia
What abnormal RBC type is seen with iron deficiency anemia?
Microcytic, hypochromic
What type of anemia is produced by a deficiency of vitamin B12?
Pernicious
What are the 2 families of glycoprotein growth factors which stimulate WBC production?
Colony Stimulating factors and Interleukins
Which leukocyte provides humoral and cellular immunity through specialized B cells and T cells, respectively?
Lymphocyte
Which leukocyte is referred to as a polymorphonuclear leukocyte and appears in high numbers at the site of inflammation?
Neutrophil
What are the cell line origins of leukemia?
Myeloid or lymphoid cell lines.
What is the chemichal signal molecule which stimulates thrombocyte production?
Thrombopoeitin
Clotting through the intrinsic pathways occurs ________ clotting which iccurs through the extrinsic pathways.
Slower than
How is a clot dissolved once it has formed?
Converstion of Plasminogen to Plasmin
What is the basic mechanism of action of the anticoagulant Coumadin?
Inhibits vitamin K
What clotting factor is decicient or inactive in the most common form of Hemophilia?
VIII
What is the most common ABO/Rh blood type?
O positive
Describe the basis for the hemolytic transfusion reaction.
Donor RBCs agglutinate (clump) in the recipients blood and Recipient antibodies agglutinate donor RBCs.
What antigents and antibodies are present in blood type O?
H antigen, Anti-A and Anti-B antibodies.
The flow of blood from the left side of the heart to the body and back to the right side of the heart is the ________.
Systemic circuit
Papillary muscles extend from the ventricular wall and anchor the __________ to the ventricular wall.
Chordae tendine
What are the main branches of the left coronary artery?
Circumflex and anterior interventricular.
Give the correct path taken by blood through the left side of the heart.
Pulmonary veins -> left atrium -> bicuspid valve -> left ventricle -> aorta SL valve -> aorta
During the cardiac cycle, the ____ valve ______ (opens, closes) when the pressure in the right ventricle falls below the pressure in the right atrium.
Tricuspid, opens
Ventricular systole occurs in two phases. During the __________ phase, pressure rises in the left ventricule but blood is not ejected.
Isovolumetric
identify the correct sequence for the conduction of the action potential through the specialized conducting system of the heart.
Sinoatrial Node -> Internodal pathway -> Atrioventricular Node -> Bundle of His (AV Bundle) -> Right and Left Bundle Branches -> Purkinje Fibers -> ventricular myocardium.
The pacemaker of the heart is the ___________.
SA Node
Which component of the intrinsic conduction system has the highest conduction velocity?
Right and Left Bundle Branches
The second heart sound (S2) is due to closure of which heart valves?
Semilunar
Describe the effects of the sympathetic innervation of the heart.
Increases heart rate and increases contractile force developed by the ventricular myocardium.
What does the T wave of the electrocardiogram represent?
Ventricular repolarization
The primary factor which regulates vascular resistance (TPR) is __________.
Vessel radius
mean arterial pressure = cardiac output X __________.
Peripheral Resistance (TPR)
What is the primary factor controlling velocity of blood flow when flow rate (Q) is constant?
The cross-sectional area of the vessel.
Vagus nerve stimulation of the heart would likely produce what effect?
Bradycardia
Which vascular component of the cardiovascular system provides the site for fluid exchange with the tissue fluids (interstitual fluids) of the body?
Capillaries
Mean arterial pressure increases when _________ increases.
Heart rate
Stroke volume
Vascular resistance
Blood flow in the venous system requires additional mechanisims to maintain flow due to the low pressure in veins. Which mechanisms assist venous return flow?
Skeletal muscle pump
Respiratory (Inspiratory) pump
One-way valves
When mean arterial pressure is above normal, carotid and aortic baroreceptors __________ sensory signals to the vasomotor center of the medulla oblongata. The vasomotor center _________ the output of the sympathetic merves to the arterioles which causes the arterioles to _________. In addition, cardiac nerve impulses from the cardiac accelerator nerves to the heart __________.
Increase, decrease, dilate, decrease.
Long-term regulation of blood pressure is managed by hormonal regulatory mechanisms. For each of the given hormones identify the overall effect of the hormone's action as:

A. Increases blood pressure
B. Decreases blood pressure
C. Has no effect on blood pressure
Atrial Natriuretic Hormone- B

Anti-Diuretic Hormone- A

Renin- A

Aldosterone- A