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26 Cards in this Set

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The smallest quantity of an element that still possesses the characteristics of that element is?
An ATOM
Atoms chemically bond together to form? (Same type of atoms)
Molecules
When the Atoms in a molecule are different, the molecule is called?
A Compound
__________ bonds form between two atoms when one or more electrons are completely transferred from one atom to another.
Ionic
___________ bonds form when electrons are shared between atoms
Covalent
___________ bons are weak bonds that form between the positively charged hydrogen atom in one covalently bonded molecule and the negatively charged area of another covalently bonded molecule
Hydrogen
__________ are typically compounds without carbon atoms
Inorganic compounds
Name the properties of water
1. Excellent solvent
2. High degree of cohesion/high surface tension
3. Temperature very stable
Define hydrophilic and give an example of a substance that is hydophilic.
Means water loving and Polar covalent substances are hydophilic
Define hydrophobic and give an example of a substance that is hydophobic.
Measn water fearing and Nonpolar covalent substances are hydophobic.
__________compounds are those that have carbon atoms
Organic
What are the four most important Organic classes of molecules?
1. Carbohydrates
2. Lipids
3. Proteins
4. Nucleic Acids
Name 3 groups of carbohydrates.
1. Monosaccaride (simplest kind of carbohydrate)
2. Disaccharide
3. Polysaccharide
Name 3 groups of Lipids.
1. Triglycerides
ex. fats, oils, and waxes
2. Phospholipids
3. Steroids
Name the 4 levels of proteins
1. Primary structure, describes the order of amino acids
2. Secondary stucture results from hydrogen bonding of amino acids
3. Tertiary stucture
4. Quarternary structure
Nucleic acids are made from ________?
Nucleotides
Name the four DNA nucleotides
Adenine
Thymine
Cytosine
Guanine
DNA is a ____________ of nucleotides?
Polymer
Define Polymer
A compound formed by combining or linking a number of monomers,or small molecules. A polymer may be composed of a variety of different monomers or of many units of the same monomer.
RNA differs from DNA in
Ribose is RNA sugar not deoxyribose.
Uracil is used not thyamine
RNA is usually single stranded not a double helix
Define catalyst
is any substance that accelerates a reaction but does not undergo a chemical change itself. Can be used over & over again
Enzymes act as __________ for metabolic reactions.
Catalysts
In metabolism the breakdown of a substance is called?
Catabolism
The secondary structure of a protein is its three-dimentsional shape. TRUE OR FALSE
TRUE
Phospholipids are composed of a glycerol molecule and three fatty acids. TRUE OR FALSE
FALSE
When a substrate binds to an enzyme's active site, this interaction causes the enzyme to change shape. This example of how an enzyme works is called the ____________ model
induced-fit