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102 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
primary functions of upper airway?
conductor of air
humidify & warm inpired air
prevent foreign materials from entering TBT auxillary: speech, smell
3 functions of nose
filter
humidify
warm inspired air
7 structures that form outer portion of the nose
nasal bones, frontal process of the maxilla, lateral nasal cartilage, greater alar cartilage, lesser alar cartilage, septal cartilage, fibrous fatty tissue
? type of epithelium lines 1/3 of nasal cavity?
stratified squamous epithelium
? type lines the posterior 2/3 of the nasal cavity
pseudostratified ciliated colmnar epithelium
three boney protrusions in the nasal cavity
superior
middle
inferior nasal turbinate or conchae
fuction of three boney protrusions in the nasal cavity
warm
separate
humidify
how do the 3 boney protrusions in nasal cavity warm, separate and humidify
turbinate seperate inspired air into serval different airstreams. action increases contact area for air and warm moist surface.
4 groups of sinuses
maxillary
frontal
ethmoid
sphenoid
3 functions of sinuses
produce mucus for nasal cavity, resonation chambers for sound production, communicat with nasal cavity
muscle elevates the soft palate
levator veli palatinum muscle
muscle moves the soft palate forward and down
palatopharyngeal muscles
epithelium lines the oral cavity
stratified squamous epithelium
4 types epithium
stratified squamous epithelium,pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium , simple cuboidial epithelium, simple squamous epithelium
epitheluim lines nasopharynx
pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium
3 groups of tonsils
palatine tonsils
pharyngeal tonsils
lingual tonsils
where are the palatine tonsils found?
oral cavity palatien arches
where are the pharyngeal tonsils found?
nasopharynx
where are the lingual tonsils found?
oropharynx
3 divsions of the pharynx
nasopharynx
oropharynx
laryngopharynx
passageway allows equalization of pressure between middle ear and nasopharynx?
eustachian tubes
epithelium lines oropharynx
stratified squamous epithelium
epithelium lines the laryngopharynx
non cilated stratified squamous epithelium
3 functions of the larynx
air passage way between pharynx and trachea. protecs against apiration of solid & liquid. genarates ounds for speech
3 single laryngeal cartilages
tyroid cartilage, cricoid cartilage, epiglottis
3 paired laryngeal cartilages
arytenoid, corniculae, cuneiform
vocal cords are also know as?
vocal folds
elastic tissue that comprises the medial border of the vocal folds?
vocal ligament
space between the vocal cords? 2 names
rima glottidis
glottis
laryngeal mucosa above true vocal cords is composed of?
(non ciliated) stratified squamous epithelium
true vocal cords the laryngeal mucosa is covered by?
pseudostratifed ciliated columnar epithelium
expiratory effort again the closed glottis is known as
valsavas movement
2 layers of the mucous blanket
sol layer, gel layer
where is mucus produced
the goblet cells and the submucosal glands
lower airway is lined by what type of epitheium?
pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
9 factors that can slow ciliary rate
1) cigarette smoke, 2)dehydration, 3)possitive pressure ventilation, 4)endotracheal suctioning 5) high inspired oxygen concentrations, 6) hypoxia, 7)atmospheric pollutnats 8)gerneral anesthetics 9)parasympaholytics
5 chemicals released by mast cells that mediate inflammation
IgG, IgA, IgM, IgE, IgD

hint: gamed
length avg adult trachea
11 to 13 cm
diameter of avg adult trachea
1.5 to 2.5 cm
what is the carina?
the bifurcation of the trachea
right mainstem bronches branches off the trachea at an angle of ____degrees
25
the left mainstem bronches branches off the trachea at an angle of ____degrees
40-60
what are the canals of lambert?
secondary avenued for collateral ventilation
where are the canals of lambert found?
found in the terminal bronchioles
where do the bronchial arteries originate?
the aorta
where do the bronchial arteries terminate?
terminal bronchioles
what structured so the bronchial arteries provide blood flow?
TBT, mediastinal lymph nodes, pulmonary nerves, portion of esophagus, visceral pleura
1/3 of bronchial venous blood returnes to right side of the heart thru?
the azygos hemiazygos and intercostal veins
2/3 of the bronchial venous blood returns via
bronchopulmonary veins
what is anastomosis
the joining of vessels, either naturally or surgically to allow flow to other structures
structures lie inferior to the terminal bronchioles
repiratory bronchioles
what is an acinies
primary lobule
how many alveoli are thre in the avg adult lung
300 million
surface area of the average adult lung
70 sq meters
how many primary lobules are there in the avg adult lung
130,000
range for the diamater of the alveoli
75 u to 300 u
another name for type 2 cells
granular pneumocyte
another name for type I cells
squamous pneumocyte
type I cells make up how much of the alveolar surface
95%
primary source of surfactant?
type II cells
what are the pores of kohn?
sm holes in the walls of the inter alveolar septa permits gas to ove between alveoli
function of macrophages
remove bacteria and other foreigh particles that are deposited within the acini
2 major components of the intersitium
tight space
loose space
name the 3 types of cells found in the alveolar epithelium
type I cell or squamous pneumocyte, type II cell or granular pneumocyte, type III alveolar cells or alveolar macropahges
3 layers of arteries
tunica intime, tunica media, tunica adventitia
what are resistance vessels
arterioles that distribute and regulate blood
what is the thickness fo the pumonary capillary wall
less than .1u thick
what is the external diameter of the pumonary capillary wall
10 u
what are the capacitance vessels
veins that are capable of collecting lrg amt of blood w/ very little pressure change
where are the superficial lungs lymphatic vessels located?
around the lungs just beneath the visceral pleura and in dense connective tissure wrapping of the bronchioles, bronchi, pulmonary arteries & pulmonary veins
within the lungs, where do the lymphatic vessels originate?
from the loose space of the interstitium
what nervous system controls the smooth muscle of bronchi and arterioles?
autonomic nervous system
what neural tranmitter is associated with the sympathetic nervous system?
norepinephrine aided by epinephrine
what effects do Beta2 receptors have on smooth bronchial muscle?
relaxation of the airway musculature
what effects do alpha receptors have on smooth bronchial muscle
causes the pulmonary vascular system constrict
what neural transmitter is associated with the parasympathetic nervous system?
acetylcholine
what rib is associated with the apex of the lung
1st rib
the lungs posterior base is found at what rib?
11th rib
the lungs anterior base is found at what rib?
6th rib
where do all bronchi, blood vessels,nerves, etc, enter the lungs?
hilum
what is the oblique fissure?
seperation of the upper and lower left lung
what is the horizontal fissure?
seperates the upper and middle lobes from the lower lobes in the right lung
structures that are contained or pass through the mediastinum?
trachea, heart, major blood vessels, that enter and exit the heart, various nerves, portions of the esophagus, thymus gland, lymph nodes
what pleura covers the lungs
visceral pleurae
what pleura covers the inside of the chest wall
parietal pleurae
the space between the pleura is known as what
pleural cavity
3 parts of the sternum
manubrium sterni
body
xiphoid process
what are the true ribs
ribs 1-7
attached directly to the sternum by way of their costal cartilage
what are false ribs
ribs 8-10
attached to to cartilage of ribs above
what are floating ribs
ribs 11-12
float free anteriorly
what is the central tendon
2 muscles that merge at the midline into a broad connective sheet
lungs go down to which rib and what part of the sternum?
11th rib and xiphoid process
what anatomic structures pass thru the diaphram?
esphagus, aorta, several nerves, and inferior vena cava
what nerve provided the primary motor innervation to the diaphragm
phrenic nerves
five accessory muscles of inspiration?
scalene muscles, sternocleidomastoid muscle, trapezius muscles, external intercostal, pectoralis major muscles
function of the scalene muscle?
flex neck
function of the sternocleidomastoid muscle?
rotate head to opposite side
function of the trapezium muscles?
rotate scapula, raise shoulders, abduct flex arms
function of external intercostal muscles?
pull ribs downward and upward
pectoralis major muscles
bring the upper arm to the body in a hugging motion
five accessory muscles of exhalation
internal intercostal muscles, transversus abdominis muscles, internal abdominis muscles, rectus abdominis muscle, external abdominis abliquis muscles

hint: I TIRE
what muscles contract and pull the ribs down and in on exhalation?
internal intercostal muscles