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23 Cards in this Set

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Microbiology revolves around what two basic themes?
1) The basic science of understanding life

2) the applications of science to human needs
Explain Microbiology as a basic biological science
our understanding of life stems from studies of microbes as model systems
Explain Microbiology as an applied biological science
deals with important pracitcal problems in medicine, agriculture and industry
Three processes that are microbial dependent
1) Oxygen Supply

2) Degrading organic matter

3) recycling of key nutrients
Two facets of cell structure
1) highly compartmentalized

2) structures consist of protein, nucleic acid, lipid, and polysaccharide macromolecules
Six processes that all cells undergo
1) Metabolism

2) Reproduction

3) Differentiation

4) Communication

5) Movement

6) Evolution
Two ways microbes impact humans
1) Can be disease causing pathogens (majority of which are not harmful)

2) Agriculturally important
How are microbes agriculturally important?
1) As nitrogen fixing bacteria

2) for the digestive process in ruminant animals like cattle and sheep

3) key role in cycling of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur

4) can cause plant disease (like citrus canker)
Three ways microbes affect the food industry
1) Food spoilage

2) food borne disease

3) food processing
Three ways microbes affect energy and environment
1) Production of methane gas

2) Phototropic bacteria help produce earth's biomass

3) Bacteria used for bioremediation
Two ways microbes used in Biotechnology
1) Used for manipulation and modification of genes

2) Cloning genes into bacterial host (production of insulin)
Robert Hooke
First to describe microbes in 1665 using molds

Invented microscope
Antoni van Leeuwenhook
discovered bacteria cells in 1676

developed a microscope at 200x magnification

associated with the royal society of london
what four things did Leeuwenhook see under the microscope?
bacteria, sperm, nematodes, blood cells
Ferdinand Cohen
German botanist who founded field of bacteriology

described the life cycle of the bacillus

first to classify bacteria
Louis Pasteur
settled controversy surrounding the theory of spontaneous generation

went on to develop vaccines for diseases like anthrax and rabies
Robert Koch
linked microbes to disease in "the germ theory of disease"

studied anthrax

found that bacteria could be grown in culture outside the animal's body and still remain pathogenic

developed many bacteria culturing techniques
Koch's Postulates (4)
1) The suspected pathogenic microbe should be present in all cases of the disease and should not apear in healthy animals

2) The suspected microbe should be able to be grown in pure culture

3) Cells from a pure culture of the suspected microbe should cause disease in a healthy animal

4) The pathogenic microbe should be re-isolated from culture and shown to be the same as the original microbe that was isolated
What did Koch's Postulates eventually lead him to believe?
That bacteria causes tuberculosis (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
Martinus Beijernick
Developed more advanced culturing techniques

developed "the enrichment culture"
"The Enrichment Culture"
based on the fact that microbes have different nutrient and incubation requirements

This allows us to "selectively" grow certain microbes
Sergei Winogradsky
developed concept of "chemolithotropy (Energy conserving process)
Chemoautotrophs
microbes that obtain their carbon from CO2