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25 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Three characteristics of Prokaryotic cells
1) Simple internal Structure

2) no membrane bound organelles

3) 1-5 micrometers longs and 1 micrometer wide
Two characteristics of Eukaryotic cells (why they differ from prokaryotic cells)
1) Larger and more structurally complex than prokaryotic cells

2) Possess membrane bound organelles
Viruses differ from other cells in these four ways
1) viruses are not dynamic, open systems

2) viruses are incapable of taking in nutrients

3) viruses are unable to change or replace their parts

4) viruses have no metabolic abilities of their own
Describe the Prokaryotic genome (5 facts)
1) DNA is large double stranded molecule and the DNA aggregates to form a nucleoid in the cell

2) DNA is circular in most prokaryotes

3) Most prokaryotes have only a single chromosome

4) Many have circular extra chromosomal DNA called plasmids

5) single copy of each gene (haploid)
Describe the Eukaryotic Genome (4 facts) in relation to differences of Prokaryotic genome
1) DNA present in linear double stranded molecules in the nucleus

2) DNA packages and organized into chromosomes

3) Contain special proteins (such as histones) used to help pack and fold DNA

4) Contain two copies of each gene (diploid)
How many base pairs and genes are in the Human and E. coli genome?
Human- 4.7 billion base pairs
32,000 genes
E. Coli- 4.7 million base pairs
4,300 genes
Three phylogenetically distinct lineages of cells that have been identified
1) Bacteria (Prokaryotes)

2) Archae (Prokaryotes)

3) Eukarya (Eukaryotes)
Eight ways microbial diversity is demonstrated
1) Size

2) Morphology

3) Metabolic Strategies (Physiolgoy)

4) Motility

5) Mechanisms of cell division

6) Pathogenicity

7) Development

8) Adaptation to environments
Energy (ATP) can be obtained in these three ways in nature
Source (Type of Microbe)

1) Organic Substances (Chemoorganotrophs (majority))

2) Inorganic Substances (Chemolithotrophs, unique to prokaryotes)

3) Light (Photosynthetic Autotrophs)
Require one or more organic compounds as their carbon source (ex. of carbon sources include glucose and acetate)

includes chemoorganotrophs
use CO2 as their sole source of carbon

includes chemolithotrophs and photoautotrophs
Hyperthermophile (List Extreme, Domain, and Habitat)
Live in High temperatures

part of domain archae

example of habitat hot undersea
Psychorophile (List Extreme, Domain, and Habitat)
Live in low temperatures

Part of domain bacteria

example of habitat sea ice
Acidophile (List Extreme, Domain, and Habitat)
Live in low pH

Part of domain archae

example of habitat acidic hot springs
Alkaliphile (List Extreme, Domain, and Habitat)
Live in high pH

Part of Domain Archae

Example of habitat soda lakes
Barophile (List Extreme, Domain, and Habitat)
Live in high pressure

Part of Domain Bacteria

Example of habitat deep ocean sediments
Halophile (List Extreme, Domain, and Habitat)
Live in salty environments

Part of Domain Archae

Example of habitat salterns
Three characteristics of the Bacteria group
1) contains an enormous variety of prokaryotes

2) all pathogenic bacteria are found in this group

3) largest dvision (phylum) is "proteobacteria"
oxygen producing phototrophs
bacteria group

unusual helical shape

cause lyme disease
bacteria group

unusual stalk structure for attachment
bacteria group

many types are pathogenic or parasitic
Two characteristics of Archae group
1) Most archae are "extremeophiles" meaning they live in extremely hostile environments

2) All archae are chemotrophic
Two main subdivisions of Archae
1) Euryarchaeota

2) Crenarchaeota
Examples of Bacteria group
E. coli, Salmonella, Pseudomonas, Gram positive, Green sulfur, green non-sulfur