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38 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Coordination of chemical reactions whereby molecules are organized into specific structures
energy releasing reactions
energy requiring reactions
Name 7 Micronutrients
1) Chromium

2) Copper

3) Selenium

4) Zinc

5) Vanadium

6) Boron

7) Iron
Name 7 Macronutrients
1) Carbon

2) Nitrogen

3) Oxygen

4) Hydrogen

5) Sulfur

6) Phosphorous

7) Manganese
Chemically Defined Culture Media
prepared by adding precise amounts of organic or inorganic chemicals to distilled H20
Undefined complex culture media
employs digests of nutritious yet chemically undefined substances
Selective Media
contains compounds that selectively inhibit the growth of certain microbes
Differential Media
contains an indicator that allows for differentiation of particular chemical reactions during growth
How do you go about making a laboratory culture of microbes?
1) Culture medium must first be prepared and sterilized

2) Culture medium may be liquid (broth) or solid (gel form with agar)

3) Innoculate with chosen microbe culture (pure culture)

4) Pure culture contain only a single kind of organism

5) Incubate under proper conditions (typically at 37 deg. celsius)
the capacity to do work
Free Energy (G)
the energy released that is available to do useful work
Exergonic Reactions
release energy (negative deltaG)
Endergonic Reactions
requires energy (postive deltaG)
What two things does a catalyst do?
1) lowers the energy of activation of a reaction

2) increases the rate of reaction
Enzymes increase the rate of reaction by how many times?
10^8 to 10^20
Prosthetic Groups
covalenty bonded very tightly to enzymes permanently
loosely bound to enzymes; may be associated with more than one type of enzyme (NAD+/NADH)
enzyme that break down cellulose
Glucose Oxidase
catalyzes the oxidation fo glucose
decomposes nucleic acid
What is the primary electron donor?
What is the terminal electron acceptor?
What are two mechanisms for energy conservation known in chemoorganotrophs?
1) Fermentation

2) Respiration
The end product of glycolysis
Which two roles does the Citric Acid Cycle play?
1) Bioenergetic

2) Biosynthetic
Produces NADH and FADH for use in electron transport chain
produces compounds that are used in the synthesis of other important biomolecules
Substrate Level phosphortylation
an inorganic phosphate group gets added to an intermediate in the biochemical pathway and eventually gets transferred from ADP to for ATP
Oxidative Phosphorylation
cytoplasmic membrane energized by the proton motive force dissipates energy that allows ADP and PO4 to form ATP
What three classes of protein electron carriers does aerobic respiration use?
NADH dehydrogenases (accept 2e- or 2H+)

Flavoproteins (accept 2e- or 2H+)

Cytochromes (accept single e-)
another type of e- carrier that are non-protein

accept 2e- or 2H+
Proton Motive Force
When e- are transported through the e- transport chain, protons are extruded to the outside of the membrane
ATP Synthase (ATPase)
large membrane enzyme catalyst complex that is responsible for the conversion of the proton motive force (pmf) into the production of ATP
ATPase catalyzed ATP synthesis is referred to as what in respiratory systems?
oxidative phosphorylation
ATPase catalyzed ATP synthesis is referred to as what in phototropic systems?
What is the primary difference between anaerobic and aerobic respiration?
Anaerobic respiration uses e- acceptors other than O2, such as NO3-, Fe3+, SO42-, and CO32-
Use light as an energy source in the process of photosynthesis