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88 Cards in this Set

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biomes
terrestrial ecosystems in different parts of the world are so similar that ecologists classify them into larger ecosystems
adaptation
heritable charcteristic that is passed on genetically to the next generation that allows a particular organism to live in an enviroment
parasites
organisms that obtain energy and nutrients from another living organism, the host
ecology
the study of the surroundings and enviroment of the plants
temperate deciduous forests
great lakes from south to the gulf of mexico, broad leaved species that shed all their leaves annualy during the fall and remain inactive during the winter
food chain
it connects all of the producers and consumers of an enviroment
levels
such as producer, herbivore, carnivore, and decomposer levels
autotrophic
self feeding-produce own sugar, protiens, vitamins, and amino acids
chaparral
the basque name for the scrub oak
seed bank
the soil contains viable ungerminateed seeds in natural storage
secondary succession
when an ares is disturbed by fire or floods some of the original soil plant and animal material may remain, the pattern of changes that follow is S S
alkaloids
medicines derived from plants, vincristine and vinblastine, come from periwinkle plant
net productivity
energy produced by photosynthesis minus that lost in respiration
community
populations of different species living and interacting in the same location
ecology
the study of organisms in relation to their enviroment
artificial selection
when humans select which type of plant or animal that they want to continue growing
tundra
treeless marshy plain
scarification
germinate only after the seed coat is scratched or cracked or briefly soaked in concentrated acid
secondary consumers
carnivores
heterotrophic
humans and other animals must obtain food from other organisms and vitamins from other sources
selection pressures
enviromental conditions that are the forces that determine the outcome of natural selection
producers
the organisms of the community that harvest the energy of sunlight and use that energy to assemble carbon dioxide from the air into sugar during photosythesis
carrying capacity
max number of individuals that can survive and reproduce in an ecosystem
photosynthesis
convert light energy into the chemiacal energy of sugar
levels
such as producer, herbivore, carnivore, and decomposer levels
population
group of individuals of the same species sharing the same territory or reproducing with each other
natural selection
individuals best adapted to their enviroment produce the most offspring and pass their desirable genes to the next generation
gymnosperms
plants that are called pines and firs
enviromental biology
how the effects of humans and pollution and water quality etc has affected the enviroment
herbivores
plant eaters, depend on plants for their energy
ecosystem
populations interacting with one another in a community and their nonliving enviroment
epicotyl
region of embryo above the sttachment point of cotyledons, gives rise to the shoot made up of leaves and stems
taiga
found south of the tundra dominated by conifers
dormant
ebryo is alive but not activley growing
mutualistic
the interaction is mutually beneficial to the organisms involved
biotechnology
way of using organisms to make commercial products
climax community
remain relativly stable until they are disrupted by some sort of disturbance suach as a fire or flood
consumers
herbivores and carnivores, they eat the things in an enviroment
biomes
terrestrial ecosystems in different parts of the world are so similar that ecologists classify them into larger ecosystems
root hairs
single celled, cover each root beginning a few millimeters away from its tip
primary succession
those changes occurring on rock lava sand and other areas htat have never been covered by plants
competition
ecological interaction between two organisms to axquire a resource that both need and that is in limited supply
lianas
woody vines that are rooted in the ground hang from tree branches
embryo
inner part of each seed, young plant, seed protects the embryo until it can produce it's own sugars
grasslands
supported huge pop of herbivores, interior of most continents
carnivores
meat eaters, may eat herbivores to obtain energy and building blocks for their bodies
succession
cumulative change in the biotic and abiotic compoinents of an ecosystem
cotyledon
seed leaf, stores and suppliesnutrients and energy for the embryo
hydrophytes
plants such as water lilies that grow in water and have modifications that adapt them to their aquatic enviroment
stomata
small pores where transpiration occurs
stump sprouting
regeneration that allows shrubs to grow quickly after a fire and to produce stems and leaves before other plants have a chance to develop from seeds
coleorhiza
sheathes the radicle, helps the seed germinate and grow,
epiphytes
attached to limbs and trunks , plants that are attached to other larger plants, live by their own phototsynthesis
decomposers
depends on dead organisms or their parts to make their living in community, bacteria and fungi
primary consumers
herbivores
angiosperms
plants often called evergreens
permafrost
permanently frozen soil beneath the surgave prevents water from drainin deep into the soil
transpiration
water loss from a plant through its stem and leaves
species diversity
defined by the number of species and num of individuals per species in an ecosystem
cell walls
made of cellulose, surrounds each plant cell, procides some protection to the cell, and gives the cell shape
survival of the fittest
those organisms that are best adapted to their enviroment will go on to live and reproduce
trophic
organisms in community are linked by their use of energy and nutrients, nutrition
ecologists
scientists who investigate processes in an enviroment
internodes
parts of stems between nodes
stratification
seeds of woody plants in temperate climates require a wet period that is followed by several weeks of cold before they germinate
axillary bud
found in the upper juncture between a leaf and the stem
ecological trade off
negative aspect of the characteristic for every positive aspect
radicle
tip of the hypocotyl
wilt
a limp condition caused by insufficient water in the cells
stem
collection of nodes, internodes, axillary buds
abiotic
nonliving factors in an enviroment
root cap
tip of all roots, it is protective, produces mucialge, helps the root as it moves through the soil
seed coat
outer protective layer immediatly surrounding the seed, thin and papery
biotic
living organisms in an enviroment
cellulose
is in the cell wall made by the sugar produced during photosythesis
habitat
the place where an organism lives and grows
nodes
regions where leaves and axillary buds attach to stems
dicots
produce seeds each having two cotyledons, peanut
seeds
produced by the flowering plants
hypocotyl
region below the attachment point
chlorophyll
found in heterotrophic organisms, used in photosythesis
monocots
flowering plants that produce seeds each with only one cotyledon
ecology
investigating an organisms interaction with its enviroment
limiting factor
an envirmental factor that inhibits the growth, reproduction, or behavior of an organism
apical meristem
growing point at the apex of the shoot and above the surface
coleoptile
sheethes the shoot, helps the seed germinate
surface area
part of a plant in contact with its environment, extended by a plants root hairs
endosperm
nutritive material found in the sed for the growing seedling