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71 Cards in this Set

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plasma
the liquid part of blood
formed elements
cellular (RBC,WBC,and platelets) fraction of blood.
acidosis
condition in which there is an excessive proportion of acid in the blood and thus an abnormally low blood pH
ABO system
human blood classification system based on RBC antigens (A,B,AB,and O) and thier corresponding antibodies.
antigens
substance when intriduced into the body, causes formation of antibodies against it
antibody
substance produced by the body that destroys or inactivates a specific substance(antigen)that has entered the body.
aggulutinate
antibodies causing antigens to clump or stick together.
What are the blood types
type A
type B
type AB
type O
what is the universal donor?
type O blood
What is the universal recipient?
type AB
Rh-positive
red blood cells that contain an antigen called Rh factor
Rh-negitive
red blood cells that do not contain the antigen called Rh-factor.
erthroblastosis fetalis
condition of the fetus or infant caused by the mother's Rh antibodies reacting with the baby's Rh positive RBCs, characterized by massive agglutination of the blood and resulting in life-threating circulatory problems
Rh-system
classification of blood based on the presence (Rh+) or absence (Rh-) of a unique antigen on the surface of RBC's
RhoGAM
an injection of a special protien given to an Rh negitive woman who is pregnant to prevent her body from forming anti-Rh antibodies: which may harm a Rh-positive baby.
hematocrit
volume % of blood cells in whole blood
CBC
complete blood count
carbaminohemoglobin
compound formed by the union of CO2 and hemoglobin
oxyhemoglobin
hemoglobin combined with O2
hemoglobin
iron-containing protien in red blood cells
bone marrow transplant
treatment in which healthy bone-forming marrow tissue from a donor is intravenously introduced into a recipent.
lymphatic tissue
tissue that is responsible for manufactoring lymphocytes and monocytes; found mostely in the lymph nodes, thymas and spleen
thrombocytes
also called platels; play a role in blood cloting
leukocytes
white blood cells
erythrocytes
red blood cells
serum
blood plasma minus its clotting factor, still contains antibodies.
albumin
one of several types of protiens normally found in blood plasma, it helps to thicken blood
globulins
type of plasma protien that includes antibodies
plasma protien
any of several proteins normally found in plasma; includes albumins, globulins and fibrinogens
buffy coat
thin layer of WBCs and platelets located between RBCs and plasma in a centrifuged sample of blood.
polycythemia
an excessive # of RBCs
anemia
deficient # of RBCs or deficient hemoglobin
hemorrhagic anemia
group of conditions characterized by low oxygen-carrying capacity of blood; caused by decreased RBC life span and/ or increased rate of RBC destruction
aplastic anemia
blood disorder characterized by a low RBC count, caused by the destruction of myeloid tissue in the bone marrow
pernicious anemia
Deficiency of RBCs caused by a lack of vitiam B12
iron deficiency anemia
condition in which there are inadequate levels of iron in the diet causing less hemoglobin to be produced; resulting in extreme fatigue
hemolytic anemia
any of a group of blood disorders characterized by deficient or abnormal hemoglobin that cause deformation and ffragiliy of RBCs(ex;sickle cell anemia,thalassemia)
sickle cell anemia
severs, possibly fatal, hereditary disease caused by abnormal type of hemoglobin
thalassemia
any of a group of inherited hemoglobin disorders characterized by production of hypochronic, abnormal red blood cells.
neutrophils
white blood cell that stains readily with neutral dye
have granulocytes
eosinophils
white blood cell that is readily stained by eosin
have granulocytes
basophils
white blood cell that stains readily with basic dyes
have granulocytes
lymphocytes
one type of white blood cell
are agranulocytes
monocytes
a phagocyte
are agranulocytes
leukopenia
abnormal low WBC # in the blood
leukocytosis
abnorally high WBC # in the blood
mast cells
immune system cells(related to basophils) that secrete histamine and other inflammatory chemicals
phagocytes
WBC that engulf microbes and digest them.
histamine
chemical released by basophils and mast cells in allergic and inflammatory reactions; results in blood vessels vasodilation and bronchoconstriction
macrophages
phagocytic cells in the immune system
lymphocytes
one type of WBC
plasm cells
cells that secrete copious amounts of antibody into the blood
lymphiod neoplasms
abnormal proliferation of lymphoid tissue or lymphoid precursor cells often associated with cancerous transformation
myeloid neoplasms
abnormal proliferation of myeloid tissue or myeloid precursor cells often associated with cancerous transformation
multiple myeloma
cancer of the plasma cells
leukemia
blood cancer chariterized by an increase in WBCs
chronic lymphocytic leukemia
(CLL)
type of chronic(slow onset and progression) blood cancer most common in older adults; characterized by cancerous transformation and increased # of B lymphocytes
acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL)
type of acute (rapid onset and progression) blood cancer common in children 3-7 years of age; characterized by cancerous transformation and increased # of B lymphocytes
chronic myeloid leukemia (CML)
type of chronic (slow onset and progression) blood cancer charicterized by cancerous transformation and increased # of granulocytic WBCs
acute myeloid leukemia
(AML)
type of acute(rapid onset & progression) blood cancer common in children 3-7; characterized by cancerous transformation & increased # if B lymphocytes.
infectious mononucleosis
a viral WBS disorder common in young adults:characterize
by leukocytosis of atypical lymphocytes and severe fatigue
prothrombin activator
combination of clotting factors & circulating plasma protiens that intiates conversion of prothrobin to thrombin in the clotting mechanism
prothrombin
a protien present in normal blood that is required for blood clotting
thrombin
protien important in blood clotting
fibrinogen
soluble blood protien that is converted to insolulbe fibrin durring clotting.
fibrin
insoluble protien in clotting
T-lymphocyte
cells that are critical to the function of the immune system; produce cell-mediated immunity
B-lymphocyte
activated B cells develop into plasma cells, which secete antibodies into the blood
INR
international normalized ratio
(the prothrombin time)
hemophilia
any group of X-linked inherited blood clotting disorders caused by a failure to form clotting factors VIII,IX, or XI
thrombocytopenia
general term refering to an abnormally low blood platelet count