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153 Cards in this Set

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What are erythrocytes?
red blood cells
What are some common functions of blood?
-Transport system
-Regulatory system
-Defense system
How does blood act as a transport system?
-Oxygen and nutrients to all living cells
-Waste products to lung and kidney
-White blood cells from bone marrow to tissues
-Platelets for clotting
How does blood act as a regulatory system?
-Body temperature: absorbs heat from active skeletal muscle (cools through skin surface, senses brain temp regulators)
-pH: ion composition and volume of interstitial fluids for homeostasis
How does blood act as a defense system?
-phagocytosis with white blood cells
-antibodies attacking foreign organisms and compounds
-clotting factors and platelets
What are anticoagulants?
-substaces that tie up clotting factors and prevent blood from clotting (EDTA)
What is serum?
plasma minus the clotting proteins (fibrinogen and calcium ions)
What is difference between serum and plasma?
Plasma has clotting proteins still in it where-as serum has already clotted and they're removed.
What are the basic temps, viscosity, pH, and U.G of blood?
-38 degrees
-5x stickier than water
-slightly alkaline (7.4 humans)
-1.059 man and dog
What is specific gravity?
Ratio of the weight of blood compared to the weight of an equal volume of water (U.G).
What is blood volume?
7% of body weight in human. Limit is 25% of total blood volume.
How much water is in plasma?
Total plasma proteins?
Other solutes?
-92% by wieght
-7%
-2%
What are the plasma proteins that make up the 7% and what are their contribution percents?
Albumins: 60%
Globulins: 35%
Fibrinogen: 4%
Regulatory: <1%
What other solutes make up plasma?
Electrolytes, organic nutrients, organic wastes, and gases.
What are the extracellular fluids?
-Intersitital and plasma
What materials cross capillary walls?
-water
-ions
-small solutes
What differentiates plasma from interstitial fluid?
-similar in major plasma ions
-different in dissolved protein concentrations
-different in levels of respiratory gases
What are formed elements in blood?
-RBC
-platelets
-WBC
What is hematopoiesis?
The entire process of all blood cell production (continuos process)
Where does hematopoiesis occur?
-In early fetus: liver and spleen
-In adults: red bone marrow
What are the two types of bone marrow and what makes them up?
-Red bone marrow: active bone marrow, in nearly all bones at the young age
-Yellow bone marrow: composed of yellow fat cells and replace some red bone marrow as animal matures.
What are RBC's known as? What is their function? Life span? What percentage of formed elements does this form?
Erythrocytes transport respiratory gases and live about 120 days. They make up about 99.9% of formed elements.
How do you measure RBC's?
-Red blood cell count
-Hematocrit
What is hematocrit?
PCV: perventage of RBC's in centrifuged whole blood.
What is Red blood cell count?
What is the RBC:WBC ration?
-Reports the number of RBC's in 1 microliter of whole blood. In one drop= 260 million.
-1000 RBC: 1 WBC
Describe the RBC structure.
-membranous sac (65% water)
-biconcave disc (thin in middle, thicker outside)
-retained only cytoskeleton (no organelles)
-can not divide or synthesize structural proteins or repair
What are the importances of shape and size of RBC's?
-High surface-to-volume ratio to quickly absorb and release oxygen
-Discs can form stacks allowing smooth flow through narrow blood vessels
-dics can bend to enter small capillaries
-has short diffusion distance
What does hemoglobin (Hb) do?
-It's a protein molecule that transports respiratory gases.
-Greater than 95% of solids, 280 million Hb per RBC
What makes up Hb?
-4 globular protein subunits: each with 1 molecule of heme (each heme as one iron ion)
What is the difference of fetal hemoglobin to Hb?
Binds oxygen more easily so it steals oxygen from its mother.
What part does iron play in Hb?
Iron ions easily form a weak, easily reversible binding with an oxygen and carbon dioxide to absorb or release as needed.
Where does Hb deliver oxygen and carbon dioxide?
O from lungs to peripheral tissues, and CO from tissues to lungs.
What determines the amount of oxygen bound to Hb?
Depends primarily on the oxygen content of the plasma.
What is anemia?
What are the two types?
Hematocrit or hemoglobin levels are below normal.
-low hematocrit and too little Hb.
What is Low hematocrit?
Blood loss, blood destruction, decreased RBC production (radiation)
What is too little Hb?
mainly due to a deficiency of one of the substances needed to synthesize heme or globin.
What is polycthemia?
An increase above normal in the number of RBCs due to deydration etc.
What are the blood types?
A, B, AB, O
*only in humans!!!
What are surface antigens?
Agglutinogens. 50 antigens in humans, 3 are important (A, B, and Rh (or D)).
What is an antigen?
substance that trigges an immune response
What are antibodies in plasma?
Globular proteins produced by WBC's that bind to specific "foreign" antigens and promote their destruction or removal from the body.
*view blood type slides
*view blood type test slide
What is the purpose of the blood type test?
It determines blood type and compatibility.
What determines blood type?
-Antigens on RBC's. Ex: A antigens would be A type blood. O has no antigens.
What is special about O blood?
It is a universal donor because it has no antigens and will not initiate lysis.
What are anti-antigens?
They are the opposite type (A blood as anti-B) that will lysis any cell with that letter. O has both and can only mix with O since it has both anti's A and B.
What are WBC's known as? What are some brief characteristics of them?
-Leukocytes
-have nuclei and organelles, no hemoglobin, defend against pathogens, remove toxins and wastes, attack abnormal cells.
Which cells (cationic vs anionic) dye blue and red?
-blue= anionic cells since blue dye is cationic and attracts oppositely charged cells.
-red= cationic cells
What are the granulocyte WBC's?
Agranulocytes?
-eosinophils, basophils, neutrophils
-moocytes, lymphocytes
What color does each WBC dye?
-eosinophils= red
-basophils= blue
-neutrophils= none
-monocytes and lymphocytes don't have granules in cytoplasm so they don't dye.
While WBC's are capable of phagocytosis?
-Neutrophils
-Eosinophils
-Monocytes
What are Microphages?
Macrophages?
-Neutrophils and eosinophils
-monocytes that moved out of the bloodstream
What is positive chemotaxis?
Attaction to a specific chemical stimuli.
What is Margination?
WBC's adhere to the blood vessel walls
What is Diapedesis?
WBC's squeeze between adjacent endothelial cells and enter the surrounding tissue.
What type of movement are WBC's capable of?
Amoeboid movement
What type of granules are found in Neutrophils?
What about it's nucleus?
-Granules contain lysosomal enzymes and bactericidal compounds (H2O2 and superoxide)
-Very dense and segmented, forms 2-5 lobes (polymorphonuclear leukocytes)
What is the function of a Neutrophil?
-1st line of defense using phagocytosis of small pathogenic microorganisms and then using hydrogen peroxide to kill the bacteria.
How long to Neutrophils live for?
Only hours to 3 days
What type of granules are found in Eosinophils?
What about it's nucleus?
-Large granules that stain red with eosin
-A bilobed nucleus
What are the functions of Eosinophils?
-Attack objects by phagocytosis and exocytosis of toxic compound
-Defend against large multicellular parasites
-Release anti-inflammatory substances in allergic reactions
How long to Eosinophils live for?
10-12 days
What type of granules are found in Basophils?
What about it's nucleus?
-Granules stain deep purple or blue with basic dye
-nucleus can't be seen
What are the functions of Basophils?
-Enhance inflammatory response with histamine and heparin
How long do Basophils live for?
What size are they compared to other WBC's?
-hours to 3 days
-rare and much smaller
What is the difference between Basophils and mast cells?
Both release the same compounds, but mast cells are distinct populations with separate origins.
Describe what Monocytes look like.
Nucleus?
Life span?
-Largest in size (twice RBC diameter)
-Spherical
-Nucleus is large and tends to be oval or kidney shaped
-Live a few months
What are the functions of Monocytes?
-Enter peripheral tissues (becoming a tissue macrophage)
-Release chemicals to attract and stimulate other phagocytic cells
-Secrete substances that lure fibroblasts into the region to produce scar tissue
Describe Lymphocytes.
-slightly larger than RBC
-round and large nucleus, often look like nuclei without cytoplasm
-migrate in and out of blood
-mostly in connective tissue and lymphatic organs
-have T cells, B cells, and NK cells
What is the life span of lymphocytes?
-days to years
What are T cells?
Function in cell-mediated immunity by providing "killer" cells to directly attack foreign invaders.
What are B cells?
Humoral immunity by productions and distribution of antibodies
What are NK cells?
Immune surveillance by the detection and subsequent destruction of abnormal tissue cells
What is differential count?
The number of each type of cell in a sample of 100 EBC's
*see page 19 for norms
What are platelets also known as?
Thrombocytes
Describe platelets
-cell fragments, not whole cells
-cytoplasm contains very small pink staining granules which contain some of the clotting factors
How are platelets formed?
Megakaryocyte sheds cytoplasm to produce about 4000 platelets in life time
What are the functions of platelets?
-release important clotting chemicals
-temporarily patch damaged vessel walls
-actively contract tissue after clot formation
How long to platelets live for?
7-12 days
What is hemostasis?
The process by which blood is prevented from leaking from damaged blood vessels (while establishing a framework for tissue repairs)
What are the three phases of hemostasis?
1) vascular phase
2) platelet phase
3) coagulation phase
Describe the vascular phase of hemostasis.
-Cut or wound triggers vascular spasm
-smooth muscles contract
-endothelial cell membranes become sticky
Describe the platelet phase of hemostasis.
-attachment of platelets to exposed surfaces
-platelet aggregation to form a platelet plug
-occurs within 15 sec
Describe the coagulation phase of hemostasis.
-Begins 30 second or more
-blood clotting
-fibrinolysis
How does blood clotting work?
-converts circulating fibrinogen into insoluble fibrin
-Fibrin and trapped blood cells form the blood clot using Ca2+ and 11 proteins
What occurs during fibrinolysis?
As the repairs proceed, the clot gradually dissolves by enzymes
What are the 4 parts of the lymphatic system?
1) Lymph
2) Lymphatic vessels
3) Lymphoid tissues and organs
4) Lymphocytes
What is lymph?
A fluid similar to plasma, but lacking the plasma protein.
What are lymphatic vessels?
Network that carries lymph from peripheral tissues to the venous system.
What are lymphoid tissues and organs?
-Found throughout body
-Connected to lyphatic cessels and contain large numbers of lyphocytes
What are the lyphocytes?
T cells, B cells, NK cells
What are the functions of the Lymphatic system?
-Produce, maintain, and distribute lymphocytes (immune function)
-Return fluid and solutes from peripheral tissues to blood
-Transport hormones, nutrients, and waste products
What are the different types of lymphatic vessels?
-capillaries
-vessels
-trunks
-ducts
What are lymphatic capillaries?
-Originate as blink pockets
-flattened or irregular outline in sectional view
What are lymphatic vessels?
-Microscopic lymphatic cappillaries merge to form lymphatic vessels
What are lymphatic trunks?
-Formed by convergence by superficial and deep lymphatics
What are lymphatic ducts?
-Converged by trunks, empty into the subclavian veins
How do lymphatic vessels compare to veins?
How does fluid move along these?
-thinner walls
-contain more valves
-contain lymph nodes
-pale golden color
-pressure gradients that move fluid through the lymphatic vessels: as in veins.
What do lymph nodes look like?
-kidney bean shape
-covered by capsule of dense connective tissue
-trabeculae (fibrous partitions)
-Hilus (attaches blood vessels and nerves)
What are the two types of lymphatic vessels going to and from lymph nodes?
-Afferent: carry lymph to lymph node
-Efferent: carry lymph away from lymph node
Describe how lymph moves through a lymph node.
-afferent lymphatics to node
-through subcapsular sinus
-through outer cortex (B cells)
-into deep cortex (T cells)
-into medulla (B cells, macrophages)
-out into efferent lymphatics
What is the function of lymph nodes?
They filter and purify lymph before it reaches the venous circulation by removing debris, pathogens, and 99% of antigens.
What are the functions of the spleen?
-store blood in red pulp (like a sponge)
-defense by 1)removing foreign materials from circulation by macrophages and 2) removing dead, dying, and abnormal RBC's.
Describe the spleen
-largest lymphoid organ
-tongue shaped
-covered by capsule of fibrous connective tissue
-trabeculae
-hilus
-internal organization (red pulp and white pulp)
What is red pulp?
White pulp?
-Blood vessels and storage space (sinuses)
-Localized areas of lymphoid tissue
What are the functions of the thymus?
-final site of T cell development
-secrete a group of hormones to stimulate T cell development (thymosin)
Describe the structure of the thymus.
-lies on either side of trachea
-large in young animals, shrinks with age
-two lobes
-septae divide lobes into lobules
-each lobule contains a cortex and medulla
-have lymphocytes
What do the lymphocytes do in the thymus?
-divide the cortex
-T cells migrate into medulla
-mature T cells leave thymus be medullary blood vessels
What cells are involved in immunity?
All cells and tissues in the body
What functions do the immune system perform?
-Protect animals from anything that could cause disease or damage
-Recognize and differentiate between "self" and "foreign" invaders
How are some of the functions of the immune system performed?
-Phagocytosis and destruction of foreign cells
-lysis of foreign cell membranes
-inactivation of pathogenic organisms
-or chemical substances
-precipitation or clumping of cells or molecules
What are pathogens?
-microscopic organisms that cause disease
-attack in a specific way
-immunity prevents effects
What are some pathogens?
-viruses
-bacteria
-fungi
-parasites
What is immunity in terms of pathogens?
The ability to resist infection and disease
What is nonspecific immunity?
Immunity that doesn't distinguish one type of threat from another.
*complimentary to specific immunity
What is specific immunity?
Protect against particular threats.
*complimentary to nonspecific immunity
What are the seven nonspecific immunities?
-physical barriers
-phagocytes
-immunological surveillance
-interferons
-complement system
-inflammatory response
-fever
How do physical barriers work?
Keep hazardous materials outside the body by:
-epithelial covering barrier
-specialized accessory structures and secretions of epithelial cells (hair and secretions)
How do secretions work in physical barriers?
They are sweat, mucus, urine, etc that flush surface and some contain bactericidal chemicals such as lysozymes and antibodies
How do phagocytes work in nonspecific immunity?
-First line of cellular defense
-attack and remove dangerous microorganisms
How do phaygocytes attack and remove dangerous microorganisms?
-engulf a pathogen
-bind to or remove a pathogen with assistance by other cells
-destroy its target by releasing toxic chemicals
How does immunological surveillance work in nonspecific immunity?
NK (natural killer) cells recognize and destroy abnormal cells by detecting the antigens on the cell membrane of abnormal cells
What are interferons?
-small prteins released by activated lymphocytes and macrophages and by tissue cells infected with viruses
How do interferons work in nonspecific immunity?
-trigger production of antiviral proteins in normal cells
-antiviral proteins (don't kill viruses, but can block replication in cell)
How does the complement system work in nonspecific immunity?
-Destruction of target cell membranes by forming the membrane attack complex (MAC) which creates a pore for cell lysis.
Describe the complement system.
-Made of 11 complement proteins
-complements, or supplements the action of antibodies
What is inflammation for?
The first step of the healing process, characterized by swelling, redness, warmth, pain, and some loss of function.
What is the function of inflammation in nonspecific immunity?
-temporary repair and barrier against pathogens
-retards spread of pathogens into surrounding areas
-mobilization of local and systemic defenses
What are pyrogens?
-Proteins that can reset body's thermostat and raise body temperature
-Pathogens, bacterial toxins, and antigen-antibody complexes
What happens to metabolism during a fever?
For every degree celcius increase, metabolism rate jumps by 10%.
*quicker mobilization of tissue defenses and acceleration of repair process
What does fever use for nonspecific immunity?
pyrogens
What is specific resistance (immunity)?
-responds to specific antigens with coordinated action of T cells and B cells
What are 4 properties of specific immunity?
1) specificity
2) versatility
3) memory
4) tolerance
What is specificity?
Response only to a specific antigen.
What is versatility?
-animal body is ready to confront any antigen at any time, resulted from the large diversity of lymphocytes and antibodies in the body.
What is memory in specific immunity?
-if an antigen enters the body a second time, a memory of the antigen causes the immune response to occur more quickly
What is tolerance in specific immunity?
Immune system ignores "normal" antigens
What are the three types of T cells?
1) cytotoxic T cells
2) helper T cells
3) suppressor T cells
What is cell mediated immunity?
-Involves close physical contact between activated Tc cells and foreign, abnormal or infected cells.
What are T cells dependent on?
Thymus (80%) of circulating lymphocytes
What are B cells for?
-responsible for antibody-mediated immunity
-attack antigens by producing specific antibodies
-millions of populations, each with defferent antibody molecules
What is the antibody structure?
-2 parallel pairs of polypeptide chains (1 heavy pair, 1 light pair)
+each chain contains constant segments and variable segments.
What are the different types of constant segments?
-IgG
-IgE
-IgD
-IgM
-IgA
What are variable segments in antibodies?
-contain antigen binding sites
-determine the specificity of teh antibody
-about 100 million types of antibodies
Describe IgG
80% of all antibodies
-mainly in plasma
Describe IgE
-attaches to exposed surfaces of basophils and mast cells
-important in allergic response
Describe IgD
-on surface of B cells
-involved in B cell activation
Describe IgM
-first class of antibody secreted after an antigen arrives
-effective in forming immune complexes
Describe IgA
-primarily in glandular secreation: mucus, tears, saliva
What are 7 actions of antibodies?
1) neutralization of antigen binding sites
2) precipitation and agglutination (formation of immune complex)
3) activation of complement
4) attraction of phagocytes
5) opsonization (increasing phagocyte efficiency)
6) stimulation of inflammation
7) prevention of bacterial and viral adhesion
Describe the primary immune response.
-takes about 2 weeks to develop peak antibody titers and IgM and IgG antibody concentrations do not remain elevated.
Describe the secondary immune response?
-characterized by a very rapid increase in IgG antibody titer, to levels much higher than those of the primary response. Antibody activity remains elevated for an exteneded period after the second exposure to the antigen.
Draw a pyrimid of immunity
specific
acquired innate
active passive
natural induced natural induced