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48 Cards in this Set

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What were Aristotle's Views about evolution?
Species are fixed and do not evolve
What were Lamarck's views on evolution?
He believed in the inheritance of acquired characteristics.
What did Lyell say in his book Principles of Geology that affected Darwin’s thinking about evolution?
That natural forces gradually change Earth’s surface and these forces are still operating in modern times.
floods, earthquakes
4. Who developed a theory of evolution identical to Darwin’s?
Alfred Wallace
Is evolution a unifying theme of biology?
What did Darwin notice about South American fossils he collected?
They were more similar to modern South American species than to other species.
What was Anaximander’s view about evolution?
Life arose in water and that simpler forms of life preceded more complex ones.
What did Buffon say about fossils in the 1700’s?
He suggested Earth might be much older than 6,000 years old and proposed the possibility that certain fossil forms might be ancient versions of similar living species.
How may fossils be formed?
· When dead organisms captured in sediment decays and leaves an empty mold that may be filled by minerals dissolved in water
· If something is buried in a medium that prevents bacteria and fungi from decomposing it.
· If it’s frozen
Darwin found that Galapagos animals resembled animals from where?
The resembled species of the mainland more so than animals on similar but distant islands.
What are the different types of evidence that modern species have evolved from prior species?
· Biogeography
· Comparative Anatomy
· Comparative Embryology
· Molecular Biology
What are homologous structures?
Features that often have different functions but are structurally similar because of common ancestry.
wings and arms
How did Malthus’s essay affect Darwin’s thinking about the evolutionary process?
Because natural resources are limited, the production of more individuals that the environment can support leads to a struggle for existence among the individuals of a population with only a percentage of offspring surviving in each generation.
only the strong survive
By what process did Broccoli and cabbage come about?
Artificial Selection – Selective breeding of domesticated plants and animals to promote the occurrence of desirable inherited traits in offspring.
What is a population?
A population is a group of individuals of the same species living in the same place at the same time.
What is a bottleneck effect? Examples?
The bottleneck effect is a genetic drift resulting from an event that drastically reduces population size. Events such as earthquakes, fires and floods may kill a numerous amount of a population leaving a much smaller gene pool.
What is a founder effect? Examples?
This effect is where a small number of individuals colonize to a new location. Residents on some islands that colonize from a civilization and move onto a much smaller gene pool.
This effect is where a small number of individuals colonize to a new location. Residents on some islands that colonize from a civilization and move onto a much smaller gene pool.
How is a biological species defined?
As a population or group of populations whose members have the potential to interbreed and produce fertile offspring.
What the types of reproductive barriers?
Prezygotic Barriers –
· Temporal isolation – mating or flowering occur at different seasons or times of the day.
· Habitat isolation – Populations live in different habitats and don’t meet.
· Behavioral isolation – There is little or no sexual attraction between males and females.
· Mechanical isolation – structural differences in genitalia or flowers prevent copulation or pollen transfer.
· Gametic isolation – Male and/or female gametes die before uniting or fail to unite.
Postzygotic Barriers –
· Hybrid inviability – Hybrid zygotes fail to develop or to reach sexual maturity.
· Hybrid sterility – Hybrids fail to produce functional gamets
· Hybrid breakdown – Offspring of hybrids are weak or infertile.
thbmg hhh
What is mechanical isolation?
Occurs when female and male sex organs are not compatible.
What are pheromones?
A chemical used by an organism to attract mates.
What prevents closely related species from interbreeding even when their ranges overlap?
Temporal isolation – breeding at different times of the day or year.
It is a type of isolation
What is a mule?
A hybrid animal – a cross between a horse and a donkey – it is infertile.
List the taxonomic categories in order from least inclusive to most inclusive?
· Specific name
· Genus
· Family
· Order
· Class
· Subphylum
· Phylum
· Kingdom
· Domain
some boys go off course some play king domain
Describe Miller’s experiment.
He showed that amino acids and other organic molecules could have been generated on a lifeless earth. Chart on page 321.
What are pairs of rod-shaped bacteria called? Clusters?
Rod shaped – Diplobacilli
Clusters – Cocci
Rod shaped – Diplobacilli
Clusters – Cocci
What are curved or comma shaped bacteria cells called?
What are the pili?
Short projections on the surface of prokaryotic cells that help prokaryotes attach to other surfaces: specialized sex pili are used in conjunction to hold the mating cells together.
What is an endospore and how does it help the survival of bacteria.
A thick coated, protective cell produced within a bacteria cell exposed to harsh conditions. Under harsh conditions the outer cell may disintegrate but the endospore survives all sorts of trauma.
What group of organisms has produced a number of antibiotics?
33. What bacteria species causes food poisoning and toxic shock syndrome?
Staphylococcus Bacteria
What disease produces symptoms with a large bull’s eye rash?
Lyme disease which is carried by the deer tick.
What Koch’s postulates and how might they be used?
Koch’s postulates are a set of diagnostic criteria that were to prove that the bacteria was the cause of the disease.
· The same, specific pathogen must be identified in each animal (host) that has the disease.
· The pathogen must be isolated from a host and grown in a pure culture, one in which no other kinds of cells are present.
· The original disease must be produced in experimental hosts that are inoculated with the pathogen from the pure culture.
· The same pathogen must be isolated from the experimental hosts after the disease develops in them.
This would be used to identify an organism that is causing a disease.
What organism causes African sleeping sickness?
What structure regulates gas exchange in plants?
Stomata – Page 346
What is xylem tissue?
Made of dead cells forming microscopic piopes that convey water and minerals up from the roots.
What is phloem tissue?
Consists of living cells and distributes sugars throughout the plant.
What organisms are bryophytes?
They are the mosses – they don’t have any vascular tissue or roots, they take in water cell by cell.
What are the dominant types of seed plants today?
Angiosperms – A flowering plant, which forms seeds inside a protective chamber called an ovary.
What is meant by alternation of generations?
A life cycle in which there is both a multicellular diploid form, the sporphyte and a multicellular haploid form, the gametophyte is a characteristic of plants and multicellular green algae.
What is the dominant stage of mosses?
Gametophytes – page 351
What structure was a key stop in the adaptation of seed plants to dry land?
The evolution of pollen produced by the dominant sporophyte.
What plants have a dominant sporophyte generation and a seed but no fruit?
What is the male gametophyte of a confer represented by?
What is a fruit?
A ripened, thickened ovary of a flower, which protect dormant seeds and aids in their dispersal.
What are examples of angiosperms?
Dandelion, cockleburs, apples, cherries.
What characteristics might a nocturnal pollinated plant have?
Large light colored, heavily scented flowers.
What are hyphae?
Thin filaments of fungi.