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58 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
CELL CYCLE
Process in which on cell
divides to produce two
identical cells.
CELL CYCLE
PHASES
G1, G0, S, G2, M
CELL CYCLE
PHASE 1
G1 PHASE
Cell growth after division.
Synthesizing new RNA
and protein molecules.
CELL CYCLE
PHASE 2
G0 PHASE
Cells that leave the cycle
and never make it to the
"S" phase. Become specialized
cells (brain cells, heart cells,
adult nerve cells, eurythrocytes)
CELL CYCLE
PHASE 3
S PHASE
REPLICATION- Exact copying
of the DNA and chromisomes
for each new offspring cell.
Centrioles also replicate
(3 to 6 hrs).
CELL CYCLE
PHASE 4
G2 PHASE
Advanced growth stage.
CELL CYCLE
PHASE 5
M PHASE
MITOSIS- Nuclear division.
Produces two identical
Nuclei. (see "mitosis" card)
TRIGGER
PROTEIN
Specialized protein that
determines how quickly
a cell matures and when
it divides.
Formed in G1
Influenced by hormone
levels
Factor in healing
MITOSIS
(M phase) Cell division.
One parent cell divides
to create two identical
daughter cells.
(stages- IPMAT)
Chromisome replication
occurs in parent cell.
HOMOLOGOUS
PAIR
A pair of chromisomes with
similar features.
(one from mom-
one from dad)
5 STAGES OF
MITOSIS
IPMAT
IPMAT 1
INTERPHASE
(G1, S, G2) genetic material
in the form of chromatin
(thread-like in the nucleus)
IPMAT 2
PROPHASE
Nuclear membrane
breaks down
Chromosomes thicken
and become visible
Spindle fibers, astrioles
and centrioles become
visible.
IPMAT 3
METAPHASE
-Chromosomes line up
at the equator
-centrioles and asters
allign to the poles
-spindle fibers attach
IPMAT 4
ANAPHASE
-chromosomes
(combined chromatids)
pull apart, and become
chromosomes.
-cell membrane pushes in
IPMAT 5
TELOPHASE
-reverse of prophase
-cell continues division
USES OF
MITOSIS-1
growth, development,
repair and replacement
USES OF
MITOSIS-2
asexual reproduction
in single-celled organisms
USES OF
MITOSIS-3
occurs in skin and
blood cells, tips of
roots, stems and limbs
USES OF
MITOSIS-4
Genetic continuity
--same number
and type of chromosomes
TYPES OF
REPRODUCTION
Asexual
Sexual
ASEXUAL
REPRODUCTION
one cell produces identical
cells by itself
(Mitosis)- Diploid =
Diploid +Diploid
SEXUAL
REPRODUCTION
Uniting of sexual material
from cells of two parents
to produce an offspring
(Meiosis)- Haploid + Haploid
= Diploid
DIPLOID
CELL
cell that contains
chromosomes in pairs
HAPLOID
CELL
cell that contains one
chromosome from each pair
MEIOSIS
cell division that
produces gametes
MEIOSIS PHASE 1
INTERPHASE1
chromatin
replication occurs
MEIOSIS PHASE 2
PROPHASE1
-each chromosome
consists of two chromatids
-Synapsis- homologous
pairs move together to
form a tetrad
(4 chromatids total)
-crossing over- H.P.s
wrap around, break off
and exchange genes.
(genetic variation)
STRUCTURE THAT HOLDS
TWO IDENTICAL CHROMATIDS
TOGETHER IN A DIVIDING CELL
centromere
TWO IDENTICAL
CHROMOSOMES
WITHIN A CELL
chromatids
THE PROCESS OF
SPERM CELL FORMATION
spermatogenesis
MALE REPRODUCTIVE
ORGAN WHERE SPERM
FORMATION OCCURS
testes
ORGANELLE THAT AIDS
ANIMAL CELL DIVISION.
NOT FOUND IN PLANT CELLS.
centriole
THE CORRECT TERM
FOR SPERM CELLS
spermatids
OCCURS WHEN A
TETRAD IS FORMED
IN MEIOSIS
synapse
FINAL STAGE OF
CELL DIVISION
telophase
THE DIVISION PROCESS
IN THE CELL CYCLE ITSELF
mitosis
A CELL THAT IS
DESCRIBED AS HAVING
A FULL SET OF
CHROMOSOMES
haploid
WHAT THE TWO
NEW CELLS ARE AT
THE END OF MITOSIS
identical
THE UNITING OF
BOTH A MALE AND
A FEMALE SEX CELL
recombination
CELL PHASE NOT
INCLUDED IN MITOSIS
WHERE BOTH DNA AND
CHROMISOME REPLICATION
OCCURS.
interphase
THE TWO CELLS AT
THE END OF MITOSIS
daughter
TECHNICAL NAME
FOR A SEX CELL
gamete
PROCESS IN WHICH
BOTH DNA AND
CHROMOSOMES ARE
COPIED DURING INTERPHASE
replication
PHASE IN WHICH
CHROMOSOMES ARE
PULLED APART
anaphase
A GROUP OF SIMILAR
CHROMOSOMES, ONE
IS MATERNAL, THE OTHER
IS PATERNAL
homologous pair
FEMALE EGG
ovum
CELL THAT BEGINS
THE CELL CYCLE
parent
PHASE IN MEIOSIS IN
WHICH GENETIC
VARIATION OCCURS
VIA CROSSING OVER
prophase
MITOSIS IS A FORM
OF THIS TYPE OF
REPRODUCTION
A-sexual
THE PROCESS OF
EGG FORMATION
IN FEMALES
Oogenesis
OVERALL PROCESS IN
WHICH ONE CELL
CREATES TWO CELLS
cell cycle
DESCRIBING A CELL
THAT CONTAINS ONLY
HALF THE NORMAL
GENETIC MATERIAL
FOR THAT SPECIES
haploid.
THIN GENETIC MATERIAL
IN THE NUCLEUS OF A
CELL DURING INTERPHASE
chromatin
PROCESS OF SEX
CELL FORMATION
meiosis
PHASE OF MITOSIS
IN WHICH CHROMISOMES
MEET AT THE EQUATOR
metaphase
LONG STRUCTURES
IN THE NUCLEUS
THAT CONTAIN DNA
chromosomes
FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE
ORGAN THAT PRODUCES
EGG CELLS
ovaries