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41 Cards in this Set

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What are the three parts of the Cell Theory?
-All living things are made up of one or more cells
-Cells are the basic unit of structure and function in living things
-All cells come only from other living cells
What scientist gave us the word "cell"?
Robert Hooke. Latin for "little rooms"
What is a superoptical microscope?
A microscope that uses light conducted through optical fibers in a tube. Used to view living cells because they do not destroy cells like TEM
Name three differences between animal and plants at the cellular level.
-ability to grow
-ability to reproduce
-ability to use energy
What is a cell?
A cell is like a small city or town. The different parts have different jobs and each part helps the cell carry out its life processes.
What is a cell membrane?
A cell membrane is a thin structure that surrounds both plant and animal cells. It is made up of mostly proteins and lipids.
What are the functions of the cell membrane?
1. Protect th inside of the cell by separating it from its surroundings.
2. Support the cell and give it shape.
3. Control what enters and leaves the cell. Maintains a stable internel environment even though outside conditions change(hemeostatis)
What is a cell wall?
ONLY found in plants, it is the stiff structure outside the cell membrane.
What is the function of the cell wall?
Provide support and protection for the cell, allowing the plant to grow upright.
What is the nucleus?
The control center for most of the cells activities. Nucleic acids are stored in the necleus. Round or oval, near center of cell, dark.
What are the functions of the nucleus?
1. controls cell activities
2. controls cell reproduction
What is DNA?
Dna is the chemical code that forms the instructions in the nucleic acids that tell other parts of the cell how to perform functions.
What is the nuclear membrane?
The nuclear membrane surrounds the nucleus separating it from the rest of the cell.
What is the function of the nuclear membrane?
The nuclear membrane controls the the substances that enter and leave the nucleus.
What is cytoplasm?
Cytoplasm is all the living material in the cell except the nucleus. It is jellylike and 80% water. The nucleus and organelles float in the cytoplasm.
What is the function of the cytoplasm?
1. Most of ther cells processes take place in the cytoplasm.
2. Most of materials needed for growth are in cytoplasm.
3. Expels waste through cell membrane.
What is an organelle?
The organelles in the cell are like the different serives provided in a town. Each organelle has a special job and together they keep the cell functioning properly. There are seven types.
What are the seven types of organelles?
1. mitochondria
2. ribosomes
3. endoplasmic reticulum
4. Gogli Bodies
5. lysosomes
6. vacuoles
7. chloroplasts
What are the mitochondria?
The mitochondria are the powerhouses of the cell. They have an outer membrane and a folded inner membrane.
What are the functions of the mitochondria?
1. release the energy stored in food to be used by the cell in life processes.
What are ribosomes?
The ribosomes are the protein factories of the cell.
Tiny, round dark organelles either attached to ER or floating in cytoplasm.
What is the function of ribosomes?
ribosomes assemble proteins which the cell uses for growth, repair and control.
What is the endoplasmic reticulum?
The ER is the highway of the cell. The membranes fold into a network of tubes and cananls that run throughout the cytoplasm.
What is the function of the ER?
The ER transports materials throughout the cell.
What are the Gogli Bodies?
Gogli Bodies are flattened stacks of sacs in BOTH pplant and animal cells that the center of manufacturing and shipping for the cell.
What si the function of the Gogli Bodies?
Materials transported by the ER stop at the Gogli Bodies first where they are altered or dtored before moving to other parts of the cell.
What are lysosomes?
Lysosomes are the garbage collectors of the cell. Large bag-like structuresfound in animals and A FEW plants.
What is the function of lysosomes?
1. Contain powerful digestive chemicals to braek down large food
2. Also break down waste products and old cell parts.
What are vacuoles?
Vacuoles are fluid-filled sacs that float in the cytoplasm, large, in BOTH plant and animal cells.
What is the function of the vacuole?
1. stores water and food materials
2. stores waste and helps cell get rid of waste
What are chloroplasts?
Chrloroplasts are green, oval shaped organelles found ONLY in plants.They contain a compound called CHLROPHYLL.
What is the function of chloroplasts?
1. traps energy from the sun to make glucose
2. gives chloroplast its green color
What si the process called culturing?
Culturing is the process of growing cells in a laboratory from a small portion of healthy skin cells.
What is a multi-celled organism?
A multi-celled organism is made up of more than one cell that are organized to work together to carries out more complex activities.
What is a single-celled organism?
A single-celled organism has inly one cell like an amoeba, and can only perform one function (swim).
What are the five main levels of cell organization?
1. cells
2. tissues
3. organs
4. organ systems
5. organism
WHat is tissue?
Tissue is an organized group of specialized cells that perform a certain function. EX: muscle cells make up 3 types of muscle tissue: smooth, skeletal and cardiac.
What are organs?
Organs are a group of organized tissues that work together to perform a special function. EX: The heart is made of cardiac muscle tissue, nerve tissue and connective tissue that pump blod through heart and body.
What are organ systems?
Organ systems are a group of organs that work together. EX: The heart, blood and a network of blood vessels make up the human circulatory system.
Name the ten human organ systems.
1. circulatory 2. skeletal
3. muscular 4. skin
5. endocrine 6. reproductive
7. digestive 8. repiratory
9. excretory 10. nervous
What is a pacemaker?
A pacemaker is an electronic device that keeps blood circulating properly by sending electric signals to the muscle cells to tell them when to contract.