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44 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Cell Theory
1.
2.
3.
1. All living things are made up of one or more cells.
2. Cells are the basic units of structure and function in all organisms.
3. All cells arise from existing cells
A cells shape represents...
the cell's function
Cell size is limited by a cell's...
surface area - to - volume ratio
All substances that enter or leave a cell must pass through...
the surface of the cell
A cell may grow large in...
one or two dimensions
Larger cells often have shapes that increase the...
surface area available for exchange
Cell membrane -
cell's outer boundary
Cytosol -
fluid inside cell, full of dissolved particles
Cytoplasm -
includes cytosol and almost all structures suspended in the fluid
Ribosome -
cellular structure on which proteins are made
DNA -
provides instructions for making proteins, regulates cellular activity, and enables cells to reproduce
Prokaryote -
-organism that is a single prokaryotic cell and has a cell wall
Capsule -
structure that enables prokaryotes to cling to surfaces
Eukaryote -
organism made up of one or more eukaryote cells. Eukaryote cells carry out more specialized functions that prokaryote cells
Nucleus -
where cell's DNA is housed
Organelle -
structure that carries out specific activities inside the cell
Cytoskeleton -
web of protein fibers found in eukaryotic cells
Microfilaments -
long, thin fibers made of the protein actin; contract and expand in certain areas
Microtubules -
thick, hollow fibers that are made of the protein tubulin; information molecules move through these tubes to different parts of the cell
Intermediate Fibers -
moderately thick and mainly anchor organelles and enzymes to parts of the cell
In the cytoplasm, ribosomes use...
the RNA messages to assemble proteins
Nuclear Envelope -
double membrane that has many nuclear pores
Nuclear Pores -
small channels that allow certain molecules to move into and out of the nucleus
Nucleolus -
region where ribosome parts are made
Ribosomes -
made of RNA and proteins
Vesicle -
small, often spherical-shaped sac that is formed by the membrane
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) -
a system of internal membranes that moves proteins and other substances through the cell
Golgi Apparatus -
set of flattened, membrane-bound sacs; cell products enter one side of the Golgi Apparatus, which modifies, sorts, and packages them for distribution
Vesicles help maintain homeostasis by...
storing and releasing various substances as the cell needs them
Lysosome -
vesicle that contains specific enzymes that break down large molecules
Vacuole -
large, membrane-bound compartment; stores water, ions, nutrients, and wastes; located only in plant cells
Protists -
pump out excess water
The energy for cellular functions is produced by...
chemical reactions that occur in the mitochondria and chloroplasts
Chloroplasts are found in...
plants and some plant-like protists
Chloroplasts -
organelle that uses light energy to make sugar from carbon dioxide and water
Motochondrion -
organelle that uses energy from organic compounds to make ATP
The different organelles and features in cells enable organisms to...
function in unique ways in different environments
Flagella -
long, threadlike structures that rotate to quickly move an organism through its environment
Pili -
short, thick outgrowths that allow prokaryotes to attach to surfaces or other cells
Tissue -
a distinct group of cells that have similar structure and functions
Organ -
a specialized structure that has a specific function
Organ System -
various organs that carry out a major body function
Colonial Organisms -
cells that live as a connected group but do not depend on each other for survival
Multicellularity -
only occurs in eukaryotes; most begin as a single cell