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119 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
2) 100 Million atoms in a row would be how long?
100 million atoms in a row would be 1 centimeter long.
113) An enzymne-substrate complex is?
Enzymes provide a site where reactants can be brought together to react, reducing the need for energy.
49) Because of its polarity water is the world's greatest what?
43) Capillary action enables water to do what?
To rise in a narrow tube against the force of gravity.

ex. plants draw water out of the roots of a plant to stems & leaves.
97) Carbon Dioxide reacts with water to form what? Write the equation.
Carbon dioxide reacts with water to produce a highly soluble compound called carbonic acid, H2CO3

CO2 + H2O -> H2CO3
66) Carbon atoms bond to other carbon atoms to form?
Chains that are almost unlimited in length.
77) Cellulose does what for the plant? What do we use it for?
Cellulose gives plants much of their strength and rigidity. We use cellulose for paper. Cellulose is the major component of both wood and paper.
95) Chemical reactions always involve changes in what?
Chemical reactions always involve the breaking of bonds in reactants and the formation of new bonds in products.
81) Compare saturated and unsaturated fats.
Saturated is used because the fatty aids contain the max possible number of hydrogen atoms. Unsaturated fats are at least one carbon-carbon double bond in a fatty acid.
C-C C=C, polyunsaturated more than one double bond
17) Define Molecule
Molecule is the smallest unit of most compounds
60) Define acid. Describe the key concept about acids.
Any compound that forms H+ ions in solution. Acid contain higher concentration of H+ ions than pure water and have pH values below 7

pH human fluids 6.5-7.5
7) Define element
Element-Pure substance that consists of one type of atom.
44) Define mixture. Give some examples.
A material composed of two or more elements or compounds that are physically mixed together but not chemically combined
Ex. Salt & Pepper, Sugar & Sand
Earth's atmosphere of gases.
96) Define reactants. Define products.
Reactants-elements or compounds that enter into a chemical reaction. Products-elements or compounds produced by a chemical reaction.
40) Describe cohesion.
is an attraction between molecules of the same substance.
30) Describe the foot of a Gecko?
a gecko's foot is covered by half a million tiny hairlike porjections. Each projection is then divided into hundreds of tiny, flat-surfaced fibers. This allows the gecko's foot to come in contact w an extremely large area of the wall at the molecular level.
35) Describe the key concept about polarity.
The unequal sharing of electrons causes slightly negative and slightly positive charges at different ends.
89)Diagram and label the general structure of an amino acid.
Amino Group

Carboxyl group
54) Do all water molecules dissociate? About how many molecules in a liter will this happen to?
65) Having 4 outer electrons enables the carbon atom to do what?
(outer electrons are valence electrons)

to join w/ an electron from another atom to form a strong covalent bond

Bond w/ many elements
70)How are polymers and monomers like the english language?
"Poly" means "many" and "mono" means "one" in the english language.

small words combine to make long words. Connecting words together makes a sentence.
82) How could you identify a saturated fat apart from an unsaturated fat by just looking at them?
You can identify a saturated fat from an unsaturated fat by just looking at them. Unsaturated fatty acids tend to be liquid at room temperature. Saturated fatty acids tend to be solids at room temperature.
120) How do cells regulate enzymes?
Cells contain proteins that can turn key enzymes "on" or "off" at critical stages in the life of the cell.
10) How do isotopes of an element differ?
Isotopes of an element differ in the number of neutrons they contain.
29) How do these bonds compare to covalent and ionic bonds?
These bonds are not as strong as covalent and ionic bonds.
5) How does an electron compare in mass to a proton?
An electron has about 1/1840 the mass of a proton.

Note: Mass of Proton = Mass of Neutron
111) How does an enzyme get its name?
Usually derived from the reaction it catalyzes.
23) How is a covalent bond represented in drawings?
In drawings a covalent bond is represented by showing that each hydrogen atom forms a single covalent bond with the oxygen atom, this is an example of a water molecule
67) How is a single, double and trible bond represented? Draw it
C-C single
C=C double
C C triple
91) How is each amino acid different from each other?
Each amino acids are differnt from each other because some are acidic and some are basic. Some polar and others nonpolar. Some contain carbon rings.
90) How many amino acids exist in nature?
More than 20 different amino acids are found in nature.
8) How many elements are there and how many are common?
There are more than 100 elements, but only 2 dozen are found in living organisms.
38) How many hydrogen bonds can one molecule of water be involved with?
39) Hydrogen bonds are responsible for many of water's
6) In a neutral atom what is equal to what?
# of protons is equal to the # of electrons.
these subatomic particles have equal but opposite charge.
87) List 2 examples of nucleic acids.
Two kinds of nucleic acids are ribonucleic acid (RNA) and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
14) List 3 ways we use radioactive isotopes in science.
3 ways we use radioactive isotopes in science are 1)treat cancer 2)kill bacteria that causes food to spoil and 3) also used as labels or "tracers" to follow movements of substances within organisms. 4) determine age of rocks and fossils.
84) Nucleic acids are polymers of?
Nucleic acids are polymers assembled from individual monomers known as nucleotides.
104) Living things need a source of energy for many of their reactions. How do plants get energy? Animals?
Plants get their energy by trapping and storing the energy from sunlight in energy-rich compounds. Animal get their energy when they consume plants or other animals. Humans-digest food
88) Proteins are polymers of what?
Proteins are polymers of molecules called amino acids.

contain: nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen, and oxgyen
Reverse- amino acids are monomers of protein.
101) State the key concept about energy release and absorption.
Chemical reactions that release energy often occur spontaneously. Chemical reactions that absorb energy will not occur without a souce of energy.
74) Sugars join together in a long chain to become what?
Sugars join together in a long chain to become starches.

109) The enzyme carbon anhydrase speeds up the reaction by a factor of ?
10 Million
34) The larger oxygen atom (with 8 protons or 8 + charges) attracts the negative charges so strongly that the electrons do what? What does this result in?
the electrons are attracted to the oxygen atom resulting in a slight negative charge.
63) The study of compounds in living things is called?
Organic Chemistry
105) To get a reaction started you sometimes have to add a little energy. What is this called?
To get a reaction started you sometimes have to add a little energy, which is called activation energy.
64) Today organic chemistry studies what?
Study of all compounds that contain bonds btw carbon atoms
59) Using the chart in Fig.2-10 give some examples of acids and bases.
Acids- lemon juice, tomato juice, rainfall

Bases-soap, sea water, bleach, lye
36) Water molecules act like little
62) What are Buffers and what are their function?
Dissolved compounds, help to control pH in body

weak acids or bases react w/ strong acids or bases.
72) What are carbohydrates? list some examples.
Carbohydrates are compounds made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms. Some examples are starches and sugars.

usually ratio 1:2:1
108) What are enzymes? What are their function?
Proteins that act as biological catalysts.
75) What are monosaccharides? Give some examples.
Monosaccharides are single sugars molecules. Some examples are glucose, galactose, and fructose.

galactose-component of milk
fructose-component of fruits
78) What are some common names for lipids?
A common name for lipid would be FATS, OILS, and WAXES.

Steroid-lipid also, acts as chemical messenger.
lipids-molecules not soluble in water
79) What are some functions of lipids?
Some functions of lipids would be to store energy. Lipids are also, important parts of biological membranes and waterproof coverings.
112) What are substrates?
Reactants of enzyme-catalyzed reactions
85) What are the 3 parts that make up a nucleotide?
Nucleotides contain 3 parts: 5 carbon sugar, phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base.
71) What are the 4 types of organic compounds found in living things?
Four groups of organic compounds found in living things are carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, and proteins.
93) What are the functions of proteins?
The functions of proteins are to control the rate of reactions and regulate cell processes. Also, used to form bones and muscles. Transport substances into or out of cells or help to fight disease.
19) What are the properties of table salt?
The properties of table salt are it is not poisonous, white solid that dissolves easily in water.
3) What are the subatomic particles that make up an atom?
the subatomic particles that make up an atom are protons, neutron, and electrons with equal numbers of electrons and protons.
100) What are the two things that can happen reguarding energy when a chemical reaction takes place?
When a chemical reaction takes place 2 things can happen reguarding energy: Energy released or energy is absorbed. ex. Hydrogen gas burning, or reacting, with oxygen to produce water vapor.
119) What are two factors that affect the functioning of enzymes?
Change in temperature and
pH Vaules

Humans 37degree C or core body temp
45) What are two types of mixtures?

52) What common body fluid is a suspension?
103) What do you have to do to reverse the reaction and get water to break back down into hydrogen an oxygen?
To reverse the reaction and get water to break down into hydrogen and oxygen you have to pass an electrical current through water to decompose water into hydrogen gas + oxygen gas.
9) What does an atom's atomic number represent?
An atom's atomic number represents the number of protons in an atom of an element.
41) What does cohesion enable some insects to do?
it allows some insects and spiders to walk on a pond's surface
13) What does it mean to be radioactive?
Radioactive mean's that the isotopes nuclei is unstable and break down at a constant rate over time.
53) What does it mean to dissociate?
break an ionic bond or a covalent bond
22) What does it mean to share electrons?
To share electrons means that the moving electrons are located in a region between the atoms where the orbitals of the atoms overlap.
110) What does it mean when we say enzymes are very specific?
Catalyzing only one chemical reaction
1) What does the Greek word ATOMOS mean?
Atomos means "unable to be cut."
56) What does the PH scale measure?
indicates the concentration of H+ ions in a solution
83) What elements are found in nucleic acids?
Hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and phosphorus are elements are found in nucleic acids.
116) What forces hold the two molecules together?
Intermolecular forces
118) What happens to the enzyme after the substrate has been converted to its new products?
The enzyme is free to start the process again
32) What happens to water as it freezes?
water expands, ice is less dense that liquid water.

reason why ice floats.
27) What holds the ions together in an ionic bond?
The attraction between oppositely charged ions is what hold ions together in an ionic bond.
61) What is a base? Describe it's key concept.
A compound that produces hydroxide ions (OH-) in solution.

Bases contain lower concentations of H+ ions than pure water and have pH values above 7
107) What is a catayst? How does it work?
A substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction.

By lowering a reaction's activation energy.
20) What is a chemical bond?
A chemical bond is the link that holds atoms together in compounds.

It involves the electrons that surround each atomic nucleus
Main types are ionic bonds and covalent bonds.
16) What is a chemical formula? What does it tell us about the compound?
A chemical formula is when scientists show the composition of compounds by a kind of shorthand. This tells us which elements form the compound and combined in what ratio.
94) What is a chemical reaction?
A chemical reaction is a process that changes one set of chemicals into another set of chemicals.
15) What is a compound?
A compound is a substance formed by the chemical combination of 2 or more elements in definite proportions.
21) What is a covalent Bond?
A covalent bond is the chemical bond in which electrons are shared between atoms.
37) What is a hydrogen bond?
slightly positive charged hydrogen atom attracted to slihtly negative charged oxygen atom

Not as strong as covalent or ionic bonds, but strongest of the bonds that form btw molecules.
68) What is a macromolecule?
Macromolecules -"giant molecule" are formed by polymerization, in which large compounds are built by joining smaller ones together.

molecule in living cells that are large
76) What is a polysaccharide? Give examples.
Polysaccharids are large macromolecules formed from monosaccharids. Some examples glycogen (animal starch).

When blood sugar runs low liver releases glycogen
47) What is a solution?
Type of mixture where all components are evenly distributed in liquid.
50) What is a suspension?
Mixture of liquid, for ex. water and nondissolved material
42) What is adhesion?
in an attraction btw molecules of different substances
114) What is an active site?
a site where the substrates bind to an enzyme.
25) What is an ion?
Ions are positive or negative charged atoms.

An atom that has gained or loss an electron and results in a positive or negatively charged atom.
24) What is an ionic bond?
An ionic bond is formed when 1 or more electrons are transfered from one atom to another.

The attraction btw oppositely charge ions is an ionic bond
58) What is neutral on the PH scale? What substance is neutral?
7 Water
69) What is polymerization?
Polymerization is A process in which large compounds (polymers) are built by joining smaller (monomers) ones together.
86) What is the function of nucleic acids?
The function of nucleic acids is to transmit hereditary, or genetic information.
73) What is the function or purpose of carbohydrates?
the function of carbohydrates is to help store energy.

living things use carbohydrates as their min source of energy.
12) What is the key concept about different isotopes and chemical properties?
Because they have the same number of electrons, all isotopes of an element have the same chemical properties.
31) What is the most abundant compound in living things?
57) What is the range of the scale? What do the low numbers mean? High numbers?
0 to 14

low numbers-acid more H+ ions than OH- ions
high numbers-base more OH- than H+ ions
33) What is unusual about the arrangement of atoms in the water molecule?
oxygen atoms on one end of molecule (slight negative chg)
Hydrogen atoms on ther end (slight positive chg)
uneven therefore called polar molecule, like magnets w poles
80) What kinds of molecules combine to form a fat?
Many lipids are formed when a glycerol molecule combines with compounds called fatty acids.
92) What part of protein's structure is important to its function?
DNA is an important part of protein's structure.
R Group
99) What two elements combine to form rust?
Iron gradually combines with oxygen to produce a compound known as rust(iron oxide)
18) What were the chemical properties of sodium and chlorine before they combined to form sodium chloride?
The chemical properties of sodium is a silvery metal that reacts w/ cold water, that is soft enough to cut with a knife. Chlorine is very reactive, poisonous, green gas
55) What's special about the hydrogen bond?
A chemical equation in which the reaction can occur in either direction
H2O<=>H+ + OH-
48) What's the difference between a solvent and a solute?
Solvent-the substance in which the solute disolves

Solute-substance that is dissolved
102)When hydrogen and oxygen combine to form water energy is released in the form of an ?
When hydrogen and oxygen combine to form water, energy is released in the form of heat.
26) When sodium and chlorine combine to form sodium chloride what happens to the single electron in the outermost orbital of sodium?
When sodium and chlorine combine to form sodium chloride sodium loses its valence electron to chlorine.
Sodium becomes (+) positive charged
Chloride becomes (-) negative charged.
Ionic bond created
98) When you exhale to get rid of the carbon dioxide, what does the reaction look like?
H2CO3-->CO2 + H2O
46) When sodium chloride is placed in water what happens?
Sodium & chloride ions attracted to the polar water molecules. Ions break away.
The water molecules surrond and separate the positive and negative ions.
11) Where are the mass and atomic numbers written when representing an isotope? Use Carbon 12 as an example.
When representing an isotope the mass is written before and raised above the element symbol.
Carbon-12 or 12C
Atomic number is not written, atomic number is 6
106) Which kind of chemical reactions need activation energy?
Chemical reaction that absorbs energy.
51) Why don't the particles in a suspension settle out?
Some particles don't dissolve but separate into smaller pieces.
28) Why is shape important in VAN DER WAALS forces?
Shape is important in Van DER WAALS forces because the forcesm are not as strong as ionic bonds or covalent bonds, they can hold molecules together.
When molecules are close together an attraction can develop btw oppositely charged region of nearby molecules.
115) Why is shape so important in the forming of the enzyme-substrate complex?
Because the active site and the substrates have complementary shapes.
similar to lock and key
117) Why is the joining of the substrate and enzyme compared to a lock and key arrangement?
complementary shapes-they fit