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12 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
35. What does homologous mean?
Term used to refer to chromosomes that each have a corresponding chromosome from the opposite-sex parent.
36. What is the difference btw diploid and haploid? How are each notated?
A cell that contains both sets of homologous chromosomes is said to be diploid, means "2 sets". Notated =2N. The gametes of sexually reproducing organisms contain only a single set of chromosomes, and therefore only a single set of genes: haploid notated =N
37. What type of cells are diploid? Haploid?
A cell that contains both sets of homologous chromosomes-diploid. Fruit flies and peas are haploids.
38. If an organism's sex cell contains 16 chromosomes, how many chromosomes does the body cell contain? (answer to be derived from information on pg 275)
The body cell contains 48 chromosomes
39. In human cells, 2N=46. How many chromosomes would you expect to find in a sperm cell? In an egg cell? In a white blood cell?
Expect to find 23 chromosomes in a sperm cell and an egg cell. 46 chromosomes in a white blood cell.
40. how are haploid gametes produced from diploid cells?
When the gametes of sexually reproducing organisms contain only a single set of chromosomes.
41. What is meiosis?
Meiosis is a process of reduction division in which the number of chromosomes per cell is cut in half through the separation of homologous chromosomes in a diploid cell.
42. What are the products formed from meiosis?
Products formed from meiosis -4 haploid cells that are genetically diff. from one another and from the original cell.
43. What is the difference btw a chromosome and a tetrad?
Chromosomes are threadlike structures containing the genetic information that is passed from one generation of cells to the next. And a tetrad is a structure containing 4 chromatids that forms during meiosis.
44. When does crossing over occur and how does this affect the alleles on a chromatid?
Crossing over occurs in Meiosis I. crossing over is the result in the exchange of alleles btw homologous chromosomes and produces new combinations of alleles.
45. What is the male and female gamete referred as?
The male gamete is referred to as the sperm. Female gamete is referred to as the egg.
46. Compare mitosis and meiosis.
Mitosis-produces 2 genentically identical cells. Diploid cells->2 diploid cells, occurs in body cells, replicates.
Both-begin w/ diploid cell, DNA replicates before.
Meiosis-produces 4 genetically diff. cells. Diploid cells-> 4 haploid cells
occurs in sex cells (gametes), replicates once divides twice, crossing over creates variation, tetrad forms > prophase I