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35 Cards in this Set

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02. How is a cell's DNA like the books in a library?
Larger cells would have to make greater demands on its available genetic library. The cells DNA would not be able to meet the increasing needs.
03. What happens to surface area/ volume ratio? How does this affect the cell's exchange of materials?
The resulting decrease in the cell's ratio of SA to V makes it more difficult for the cell to move needed materials in and waste products out.
04. What is cell division?
The process by which a cell divides into 2 new daughter cells.
05. What happens to the genetic material before cell division?
The cell replicates, or copies, all of its DNA
06. What is the purpose of cell division?
Solves the problem of increasing size by reducing cell volume.
07. Calculate the Surface area/volume ratio of a cubic cell with length 4cm.
SA 4x4x4=96cm squared
V 4x4x4=64cm cubed
96:65
3:2
08. How is genetic information passed on from one generation of cells to the next?
Genetic information is passed from one generation of cells to the next when a cell divides.(cell division)
09. What makes up a chromosome?
Chromosomes are made up of DNA and proteins.
10. How many chromosomes do human cells have?
Humans have 46 chromosomes
11. When are chromosomes visible?
Chromosomes are visible at the beginning of cell division when the chromosomes condense into compact, visible structures.
12. Draw a chromosome-label centromere and sister chromatids.
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13 What is the "in-between" period of a cell called?
The "in-between" period of a cell is called interphase.
13. What is the "in-between" period of a cell called?
The "in-between" period of a cell is called interphase.
14. Define cell cycle.
Cell cycle-the series of events that cells go through as they grow and divide.
15. List 4 phases of the cell cycle.
4 phases: M phase, G1 phase, S phase, & G2 phase
16. What does the M in Mphase stand for? S in Sphase? G in Gphase?
M stands for mitosis in the Mphase. S stands for synthesis, G stands for Gap/Growth in the G phase.
17. What are the 3 phases of interphase? Describe what occurs in each of the phases.
3 phases of interphase: G1, G2, & S. G1 phase: cells increase in size and synthesize new proteins and organelles. S phase: chromosomes are replicated and the synthesis of DNA molecules takes place. G2 phase:many of the organelles and molecules required for cell division are produced.
18. Draw a plant cell undergoing mitosis. Label parts of the cell and phase of the cell. Pg 246
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19. What key structures in the cytoplasm help organize spindle?
The centrioles are key structures in the cytoplasm that help organize the spindle.
20. What is the function of the spindle?
The spindle helps to separate different chromosomes during mitosis.
21. Which cells would not include centrioles as a key player in the cell cycle?
Plant cells. Because they don't have any centrioles in their cytoplasm.
22. When does cell division end?
Cell division ends once all of the chromosomes and the nucleus have all been transferred to the new cell.
23. What is the result of mitosis?q
The result of mitosis are two nuclei with a duplicate set of chromosomes.
24. What is cytokinesis? When does it occur?
Cytokinesis is the division of the cytoplasm. Occurs at the same time as telophase.
25. Describe how cytokinesis differs in animals versus plants.
In animal cells, the membrane is drawn inward until the membrane is pinched into 2 parts. In plant cells, a plate forms between the 2 cells.
26. In the human body, how do nerve and muscle cells differ from skin cells, digestive tract cells and cells in bone marrow?
IN human muscle cells and nerve cells do not divide at all once they have developed. Cells of the skin and digestive tract and blood cells in the bone marrow grow and divide rapidly throughout life.
27. What conclusion was made from the experiment done in figure 10-7?
Show that the controls on cell growth and cell division can be turned on and off.
28. How is this conclusion related to what happens during an injury such as a cut in the skin?
When an injury such as a cut in the skin or a break in a bone occurs, cells at the edges of the injury are stimulated to divide rapidly. This starts the healing process. The rate of cell division slows down when healing is near completion.
29. What is cyclin? Who discovered it and what does it seem to do?
A protein that seemed to tell cells when it was time to divide. Tim Hunt and Mark Kirschner discovered it. Cyclin is a protein.
30. What are two types of regulatory proteins?
Internal regulators and external regulators.
31. What do internal regulator proteins respond to? Give an ex.
Respond to events inside the cell. Ex. protein that makes sure that a cell does not enter mitosis until it gets a signal that all its chromosomes have been duplicated.
32. What do external regulator proteins respond to? How do they respond?
Respond to events outside the cell. Direct cells to speed up or slow down the cell cycle.
33. What do molecules found on the surface of neighboring cells do to the cells?
The molecules found on the surface of neighboring cells effect the cells by slowing or stopping the cell cycle.
34. Why is this a benefit for the body?
This benefits the body by preventing excessive growth and keeps tissues of body from disrupting each other.
01. What are the two main reasons why cells divide?
The demands on DNA; difficulty moving nutrients and wastes across the cell membrane.