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44 Cards in this Set

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29. Why does the book say the history of humans in Hawaii is an important lesson? What is the moral to the story?
We sometimes forget what use to be here before us. Moral:human species is growing rapidly. Hawaii like the earth has limited resources and space.
30. What advantage do humans have in competing with other species for space, energy and food?
Industry & technology give humans a strong advantage in competing w/ other species for limited resources such as food, energy and space.
31. List 4 human activities that have caused changes in the ecosystem?
Hunting7 gathering, agriculture, industry, and urban development.
32. What is the difference btw subsistence hunting and modern day hunting?
Subsistence hunting-hunter-gatherers hunt to supply their diet w/ the meat of wild animals. Modern day-make little demands on the environment, use some form of technology (guns, snowmobiles, mfg tools.
33. Why was the spread of agriculture important in human history?
Provided people w/ one of their most basic needs-dependable supply of food.
34. List pros and cons of domesticating animals.
Pros-sheep, goats, cows, pigs, horses, dogs help supplied humans w/ milk meat hides wool companionship and energy to do work. Cons-goats, cows other herbivores changed grasslands. eroded soils & put large demands on water supplies
35. What happened in the 1800's to increase crop yields?
Large-scale watering/ irrigation, new crop varieties & invention of farm machines for plowing, planting, harvesting helped farmers increase their yields. Advancements in science & technology.
36. What was the green revolution?
Global effort increase food production, governments & scientists intro new, intensive farming practices that greatly increased yields of rice, wheat,& other crops.
37. In what ways do modern farming methods affect the biosphere more than historical practices did?
Depleted energy & water. Monoculture allows a # of pest species that reproduce on a very large scale. Farmers have used potentially harmful chemicals. Fertilizers interfere w/ food webs & biogeochemical cycles.
38. List pors and cons of the green revolution.
Pros-water, chemical fertilizers boost food yields & pesticides control unwanted species but chemicals are potentially harmful. Pro/Con human & animal replace w/ heavy equipment & machinery.
39. What is suburban sprawl?
Spread of suburban communities across the American landscape.
40. Name three results of the industrial revolution.
Industrial processes pollute air, H20, & soil. communities produce wastes & suburban sprawl consumes farmland & natural habitats.
41. What is the tragedy of the commons?
Any resource that is opent to everyone will eventually be destroyed because everyone can use the resource, but no one is responsible for preserving it.
42. Natural resources can be classified as BLANK and BLANK. Describe the two and give ex.
Renewable, nonrenewable. Renewable-can regenerate & are therfore replaceable but not unlimited ex. fresh H2O, tree. Nonrenewable-cannot be replenished by natural processes ex. fossil fuels, coal, oil & natural gas.
43. Describe overfishing, cause, & preventative methods
fish stocks harvested faster than reproduce. Stressed the system causing fish pop. to collapse. limit the catch of fish pop. & close the fishing grounds temporarily, Aquaculture.
43.a. Describe overfishing, cause, & preventative methods
fish stocks harvested faster than reproduce. Stressed the system causing fish pop. to collapse. limit the catch of fish pop. & close the fishing grounds temporarily, Aquaculture.
43.b. Describe deforestation, cause, preventative methods
loss of forest. Logging, mature trees harvested to allow younger trees to grow. Plant new trees.
44. List 4 problems humans activites can cause on land.
plowing causing soil erosions, overgrazing, deforestation & farming.
45. Where does waste build up come from?
?
46. What leads to soil erosion?
Plowing the land, removes the roots which hold the soil in place.
47. How can an area of fertile soil become a sandy desert? What is this known as?
Dry climate, overgrazing, farming & drought. Desertification.
48. Where does L.A. smog come from?
Automobile exhausts & industrial emissions.
49. Define pollutant.
A harmful material that can enter the biosphere through the land, air, / water.
50. What pathways do the chemicals in atmospheric emissions take on their way to becoming acid rain.
Burning of fossil fuels, release acidic gases containg nitrogen & sulfur compounds into the atmospher. These gases combine w/ H2O vapor in air, form drops of nitric & sulfuric acids. These stron acids drift for miles before they fall as acid rain.
51. Why is the Colorado River such a hot commodity?
?
52. Where does sewage come from and where does it go?
Domestic sewage comes from sinks & toilets. Where does it go?
53. What are the factors that affect the quality of water?
Protecting water supplies from pollution & managing the demands.
54. Why was the oil spill Exxon Valdez considered the worst in U.S. history?
?
55. What cuases global warming?
Human activities have caused global warming by adding carbon dioxide & other green house gases such as methane to the atomsphere. Global atmospheric green house is retaining more heat.
56. Why would a few degrees change in average temperature be detrimental?
If the temp. increases then it could melt the ice caps & seal levels could rise enough to cause flooding of low-lying coastal areas. Storms & other weather disturbances become more frequent. N. America experience serious droughts, during summer.
57. Where is the oznoe layer the thinnest?
Southern Hemisphere Note: 1) Hole over Antarctica, 2) 2nd hole over Arctic.
58. What are CFC's? List ex. of CFC propellants.
Chlorofluorocarbons. Aerosol cans, production of plastic foams, & coolants in refrigerators, freezers, & air conditioners.
59. Why is biodiversity of great value to humans?
It provides us w/ food, industrial products, & medicines.
60. Most old growth forests have been cleared. How does this affect living organisms?
When old growth forests are cut down the variety of species in the forests are lost.
61. What is habitat fragmentation?
The development that often splits ecosystems into pieces.
62. List 2 ex. of invasive species in the U.S. and the resulting change in the ecosystem.
1) Zebra mussels-reproduce so quickly that they cause major ecological changes & driving several native speices to extinction 2) leafy spurge-infests mill. of hectares of grasslands acroos Northern great plains, where it displaces native plants.
63. How can small seemingless harmless amounts of a chemical substance become lethal?
Nonbiodegradable: cannot be eliminated from the body, it increase @ higher tropic levels in a food chain/food web by 10 times.
64. Why was DDT banned from the U.S.?
The widespread spraying of DDT over many yrs had threatened pop. of many animals w/ extinction.
65. According to Figure 6-16 what number is the concentration of DDT multiplied at each successsive trophic level?
ten times the level before.
66. What is the difference btw extinct and endagered?
Extinct-term used to refer to a species that has died out. Endangered-species whose pop. size is rapidly decling & will become extinct if the trend continues.
67. What is CITES? What does it enforce?
Convention on Internation Trade in Endangered Species.
Bans international trade in products derived from an agreed-upon list of endangered species.
68. The world's first national park is BLANK.
Yellowstone Park
69. What is the Lacey ACt?
Transporting illegally killed animals across state borders becomes a federal crime.
70. Discuss two important things that occurred btw the years 1933 and 2000.
1) Endangered species preservation act-allows for identification of a research on endangered species(1966). 2) National Marine Sanctuaries Act-secretary of commerce is empowered to designate marine ecosystems as preservation or conservation areas(1972)