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85 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
homeostasis
stable environment
hypothesis
possible explanation for observations
theory
a hypothesis that is supported by other information
organism
all characteristics of life
biology
study of living things
zoology
study of animals
botany
study of plants
anatomy
study of the structures of an organism
physiology
study of the functions of an organism
chemistry
study of chemical reactions
microbiology
study of small living things
ecology
study of relationships between organisms and their environment
genetics
study of heretity
taxonomy
study of classification
entomology
study of insects
herpetology
study of reptiles and amphibians
ichthyology
study of fishes
ornithology
study of birds
paleontology
study of fossils
autotroph
make their own food, usually through photosynthesis
heterotroph
organism that obtains energy from food it consumes
prokaryote
lacks a nucleus; ex. bacteria
eukaryote
has a nucleus
osmosis
diffusion of water
diffusion
net movement from high concentration to low concentration; continues until equilibrium is reached
centromere
area where cromatids are attached
genotype
way an organism is genetically
phenotype
way an organism appears
homozygous
2 alleles for the trait are the same
heterozygous
2 alleles for the trait are different
DNA polymerase
main enzyme in replication
point mutation
change in one base
frameshift mutation
one is added or deleted
hybrid
crossing of 2 different species
inbreeding
crossing closely related species
genetic engineering
changing genetic sequence
palindrome
read same forwards and backwards
recombinant DNA
DNA from different sources added together
transgenic organism
contain foreign DNA
genome
total # of genes in an organism
What characteristics do all living things have in common?
made of cells, can reproduce, adapts to environment, grows and develops, use energy, and based on a genetic code
Trace the organization of life from the somplest level to the most complex.
cells > tissue > organs > systems > organisms > population > community > ecosystem > biosphere
What makes a good experiment?
look to solve problems that are testable
Why is SI commonly used in science?
it's international and it's multiples of 10
What is the importance of using a control group in an experiment?
used as a comparison
Aristotle
classified organisms
Vesalius
studied anatomy
Harvey
blood circulation
Leeuwenhoek
advanced microscope
Linnaeus
modern classification system
Pasteur
disproved spontaneous generation
Darwin
natural selection
Mendel
genetics
Watson and Crick
discovered structure of DNA
Wilson
biodiversity
carbohydrates
main source of energy
lipids
stores energy
proteins
contrils chemical reactions, transport, form structure
nucleic acid
stores genetic info.
cell membrane
regulates what goes in and out of cell
cell wall
supports and protects the cell
nucleus
contains cell's genetic material and controls cells activity
cytoplasm
contains many important structures
chromosome
contains genetic info. that passes from generation of cell to next
nuclear envelope
lets things in and out of nucleus
cytoskeleton
helps to support cell
endoplasmic reticulum
help make proteins get ready to leave
golgi apparatus
attaches carbs and lipids to proteins
lysosome
breaks down carbs, lipids, and proteins
mitochondria
breaks down food to make high-energy compounds
chloroplast
makes energy-rich food molecules from the sun
vacuole
stores water, salts, proteins and carbs.
What are the differences in plant and animal cells?
plants have chloroplasts, cell walls, large vacuoles; animals have lysosomes, smaller vacuoles
How can particles enter and exit the cell?
diffusion allow particles to move in and out from high concentration to low until reach equilibrium
Why are cells small?
if the cells are to big, not enough nutrients can get to inner parts of cell and not enough DNA to control cell if to big
Prophase
chromosomes double
Metophase
chromotids line up in middle
Anaphase
sister chromatids are pulled apart
Telophase
chromosomes become long and thin
How are cancer cells different from normal cells?
cancer cells grow uncontrolably
Why are cancer cells harmful?
have short interphase, and they press up against things that aren't suppose to have pressure
What is the difference in aerobic and anaerobic respiration?
aerobic-takes place when there is oxygen; anaerobic-takes place when there is no oxygen
What are the products of alcoholic and lactic acid fermentation?
alcoholic fermentation-creates alcohol and small amount of ATP; lactic acid fermentation-creates lactic and a small amount of ATP
Describe the laws of segregation?
2 alleles for each trait separation when gamete is formed
Describe the the independent assorment?
genes for separatie traits are inherited independently of each other