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168 Cards in this Set

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Fertilization
union of sperm and egg to form a zygote
3 parts of sperm and function?
tail-allows the sperm to swim toward egg

middle- contains energy-producing mitochondria

head- contains the sperm nucleus and is capped by a membrane-bounded acrosome
What is weakened by the secretion of enzymes?
corona radiata
Polyspermy
entrance of more than one sperm
"fast block"
serves to repel sperm only for a few seconds
"slow block"
longer-lasting coritcal reaction
What is development?
all the changes that occur during the life cycle of an organism
What is the first stages of development?
embryo
cleavage
cell division without growth
morula
ball of cells
Fertilization
union of sperm and egg to form a zygote
3 parts of sperm and function?
tail-allows the sperm to swim toward egg

middle- contains energy-producing mitochondria

head- contains the sperm nucleus and is capped by a membrane-bounded acrosome
What is weakened by the secretion of enzymes?
corona radiata
Polyspermy
entrance of more than one sperm
"fast block"
serves to repel sperm only for a few seconds
"slow block"
longer-lasting coritcal reaction
What is development?
all the changes that occur during the life cycle of an organism
What is the first stages of development?
embryo
cleavage
cell division without growth
morula
ball of cells
blastula
hollow ball of cells having a fluid filled cavity called the blastocoel
yolk
dense nutrient material
ectoderm
outer layer of cells
endoderm
inner layer of cells
blastopore
pore created by invagination and eventually becomes the anus
mesoderm
middle layer of cells
how does mesoderm form?
cells migrate btw ectoderm and endoderm and invagination of cells along the edges of a longitudinal furrow
primitive streak
the furrow caused by the formation of the mesoderm and it's because of its appearance
Embryonic germ layers
ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm
notochord
dorsal supporting rod
Neural plate
thickening of the cells is seen along the dorsal surface of the the embryo
neural tube
neural folds develop on either side of a neural groove
Phylogeny
evolutionary history of relationships among organisms/genes
What does a node represent?
point at which a lineage diverges
taxon
any group of species that we designate or name
clade
group of organisms that includes an ancestor and all descendants of that ancestor
synamorphies
derived trait that are shared among a group and are viewed as evidence of a common ancestor
What are the characteristics used to make a tree?
morphological traits, behavioral, development, and genetic data
Steps of making a phylogeny tree
1. choose taxa
2. determine the characteristics
3. determind polarity of characteristic
4. group taxa
ancestoral trait
trait that was present in the ancestor of a group
derived traits
traits that differ
principle of parsimony
the tree that requires the fewest number of evolutionary changes is favored
Phylogeny
evolutionary history of relationships among organisms/genes
What does a node represent?
point at which a lineage diverges
taxon
any group of species that we designate or name
clade
group of organisms that includes an ancestor and all descendants of that ancestor
synamorphies
derived trait that are shared among a group and are viewed as evidence of a common ancestor
What are the characteristics used to make a tree?
morphological traits, behavioral, development, and genetic data
Steps of making a phylogeny tree
1. choose taxa
2. determine the characteristics
3. determind polarity of characteristic
4. group taxa
ancestoral trait
trait that was present in the ancestor of a group
derived traits
traits that differ
principle of parsimony
the tree that requires the fewest number of evolutionary changes is favored
systematics
study of evolutionary relationships btw organism
What are the 2 things that help us intellectually "map" our understanding of evolutionary relatives?
phylogeny and classification
Homoplastic trait
similiarity among organism that was NOT inherited from the common ancestor of those organisms
Homoplastic traits can result from what?
convergent evolution and evolutionary reversal
convergent evolution
independent evolution of similiar structure in organisms that are NOT directly related
What does convergent evolution result in?
analogous traits
Why might convergent evolution occur?
often bc lineages face similar environmental challenges and selective pressures
analogous structures
similiar but different in evolutionary origin
homologous structures
derived from a common ancestor
marsupials
young are born in an immature condition and held in a pouch until they develop
evolutionary reversal
character reverts from a derived state back to the ancestral state
What is the evidence supporting the tree of life?
fossils
What are biological classifications used for?
to express the evolutionary relationships of organisms
What are biological classifications?
hierarchical with increasing levels of inclusions
fossil
preserved remains of once living organisms
What 3 factors must be considered when designing an expedition to answer a specific question?
-rocks must be the right age
-rocks must be the right type for the preservation of the fossils
-rocks must be exposed at the surface of the earth
Where did they work in the inner fish?
Southern Ellesmere Island in Canada
1,000 miles from north pole
What characteristics of Tiktaalik made it such an important find?
-like fish, has scales and webbed fins
-like an early land animal, has flat head, neck, and all the bones in the fin resemble the bones in land animals
-it belongs to the correct time period 375 million years ago
Tiktaalik is intermediate btw what two things?
fish and primitive land living animal
What is the oldest bird fossil?
Archaeopteryx "ancient feather"
What are taxa expected to be?
monophyletic
placentals
young are not born until they can safely survive in the external environment
Who started classification?
Carolus Linnaeus in the 1700's
binomial nomenclature
monophyletic
most recent common ancestor and ALL of descendants
polyphyletic
does NOT contain the most recent commone ancestor of the group
paraphyletic
most recent common ancestr and SOME of descendants
monophyletic group
most recent common ancestor and ALL of descendants
Where are fossils produced?
sedimentary rock
How do fossils occur?
in definite order
Neil Shubin?
wanted to find a transitional fossil from water to land
macro evolution?
mutation, gene flow, genetic drift, and natural selection + 3.8 billion yrs ago
Where did Sean Carrol do his research?
Bouvet Island; Norvegia
What cells the icefish have?
white blood cells
How many species of icefish and water temp?
15; 29-30 degree water bc its easier to pump blood bc it lowers vescity
What does the DNA record reveal about icefish?
what was lost, gained, or modified
What was lost in icefish?
hemoglobin gene
What is gained in icefish?
proteins that act as antifreeze that allows the fish to sustain life under cold water
What does DNA record reveal about earth?
earth and life evolved together
-shifts in lifestyles are reflected in DNA
-Darwin's idea of Natural Selection
What are Darwin's key ideas?
-variation
-time
-favor adventageous ideas and rejecting the others
What gene determines color?
MC1R
Evolving genes
variations arise by random mutations selective conditions determine which traits are favored
What is the evidence that supports the tree of life?
-differneces and similiarites in DNA sequences
-molecular evidence
-fossil
-anatomical & development
Advantages of multicellular animals?
-can specialize
-1 cell doesn't determine whether the cell lives or dies
-colonies can collect more food
-colonies can control internal environment
-colonies can act as a coordinated unit
Trace fossils
evidence of biological disturbances
When is the cambrian time frame?
542-488 million years ago
What are the parts of the animal body plan?
1. tissues
2. symmetry
3. body cavity
4. development
5.segmentation
What does Eumetazoa have?
has distinct and well defined tissues and can specialize in mor than 1 function
Parazoa
lack defined tissues and organs
What doesn't have symmetry?
sponges
What are the types of symmetry and what do they do?
-bilateral symmetry
-radial symmetry
and they help body movement
What are the 3 germ layers?
ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm
What produces the 3 germ layers?
Eumetazoa
What happens in the body cavity?
-organs can form
-organs can move more freely
Microevolution
genetic changes produce variation which is acted upon by natural selection
macroevolution
the same evolutionary processes sustained over long periods of time can result in speciation events
Protostomes
develop mouth first from the blastopore
Deuterostomes
develop the anus first from the blastopore
Protostomes split into what 2 groups?
Lophotrochozoa-grow by adding mass to an existing body ( ex worms)

Ecdysozoa- grow by molting
Where does segmentation occur and advantages?
-chordats
-anthropods
-annelids
better body movement
what is an immature egg?
germinal vesicle
Cortical reaction
fusion of egg and sperm membrane
Karyogamy
the 2 pronuclei fuse to form a zygote
Blastula
hollow centered cell stage
cortical reaction
cortical granules fuse with the plasma membrane & release contents under the vitelline evelope
Where did the development of animal phyla come from?
Cambrian
traditional phylogeny of major animal phyla is based on what?
adult morphology and body plan
Difference between sea urchin egg and mammal egg
sea urchins have a jelly layer around the egg
What release the recognition mechanism in sea urchin fertilization
the egg
binding and triggering mechanisms are a form of what
gametic isolation
What does contact between egg and sperm trigger
acrosomal reaction
What are the 2 mechanisms in sea urchins that prevent polyspermy
1. Fast block- change in membrane potential
2. cortical reaction- coritcal granules fuse with the plasma membrane and release contents under the vitellin envelope
What is Fast block
influx of sodium rapidly increases the influx and causes other sperm not to be able to meet it
Steps of Cortical reaction
1. fusion of sperm and egg plasma membrane
2. triggers release of intracellular calcium (fast block)
3. exocytosis of cortical granules
4. vitelline envelope lifts and hardens into fertilization membrane
What does sea urchin blastulation involve?
cleavage- the division of cells without the growth
what is the name of the sea urchin larvae?
pluteus
What does a common trend do?
expand in number then specialize in the function
Who noticed homology in the early stages
Karl Ernst Von Baer
modern synthesis could explain what and not what?
could explain survival of the fittest but not the arrival of the fittest
Types of Asexual Reproduction
budding
regeneration
Hox genes
specify body pattern and axis formation, leading to the developmental similiarities across animals
What is the source of all inherited trait info?
genomes
clues to evolutionary relationships?
fossils
embryonic development
morphology
structure of proteins
genes sequences
yolk distrubution in reptiles
large body of acellular yolk creates an incomplete cleavage pattern in which the dividing cells form an embryo on top of the yolk
sea urchin yolk distribution
limited yolk is evenly distributed throughtout the egg cytoplasm so the cleavage is complete with the fertlized egg dividing in an even pattern (radial cleavage)
What symmetrical pattern does ecdysozoans have?
idiosyncratic cleavage pattern that is neither radial nor spiral
synamorphy of triploblastic
existence of 3 cell layers in embryos
Examples of diploblastic animals
placozoans
ctenophores
cnidarians
What are protostomes and deuterostomes called?
bilaterians
4 key features where variation can be seen in a body plan
symmetry of the body
structure of the body cavity
segmentation
external appendages
What do sessil do?
drift with water currents
What is bilateral symmetry strongly correlated with?
cephalization- concentration of sensory organs and nervous tissues in the head and end of the animal
What are the 3 types that animals can be divded into?
acoelomate
pseudocoeoomate
coelmate
example of acoelomate
flat worms- lack an enclosed fluid filled body cavity
how do most invertebrates reproduce?
asexually
Types of asexual reproduction
budidng-many multicellular use it. grows by mitotic cell division and detaches itself
regeneration-replacement of a piece of the body can regenerate a complete individual ex echinoderms
parthenogensis- in arthropods. is the development of offspring from an unfertilized egg
epiboly
process when ectoderm extends around the embryo's surface
archenteron
primitive gut and completely surrounded by the endodermal tissue
ventral lip
entrance of more surface cells
what does ectoderm form?
skin, sensory organs, nervous system, brain, eye, mouth, hair, and nails
What does Endoderm form?
digestive and respiratory system
what does mesoderm form?
skeleton, muscles, gonads, reproductive system
Gametogensis produces what?
haploid gametes thru meitic cell division
Gametes haploid/dipolid
haploid
Process of Meiosis:
1. diploid cell (2n)
2. DNA replication (sister chromatids)
3. Meiosis I (reductional division) separates the homologous chromosomes and become haploid now
Meosis II: (equational division) get separated and all different combo of genes and lead to genetic diversity
Process of oogensis
goes thru mitosis:
1. female germ cell (2n)
2. oogomism (2n)
3. primary oocyte (2n) is the last stage of the embryo

4. secondary oocyte (1n)
5. oolid (1n)
6. ovum (egg)
What is similar to the jelly coat but apart of the mammalian egg?
zona pellicida
Blocks of Polyspermy in mammals
no membrane depolarization
calcium influx does occur and cortical granules fuse with egg membrane.
enzymes destroy the sperm binding molecules in the zona pellucida
What happpens when an egg is activated?
sharp rise in calcium, increases the rate of cellular respiration, and protein synthesis to get prepared for cell division
What does the sperm provide?
haploid nucleus and genetic material
dioecious
species has separate male and female members
What are the 2 poles
vegetal-forms internally
animal-forms externally
What is a disadvantage of asexual reproduction?
low gentic diversity
animals with an amniote egg reproduce by
internal fertilization
polar body
nonfunctional nucleus produced by meiosis during oogenisis
copulation
Reproductive behavior that results in a male depositing sperm in the reproductive tract of a female.
spermatogonia
the diploid progeny of a germ cell in males.