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28 Cards in this Set

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Amino Acids
alpha-amino-substituted carboxylic acids, the building blocks of proteins
Isoelectric pH
The pH at which a solute has no net electric charge and thus does not move in an electric field
Peptide
Two or more amino acids covalently joined by peptide bonds
Protein
A macromolecule composed of one or more polypeptide chains, each with a characteristic sequence of amino acids linked by peptide bonds
Peptide Bond
A substituted amide linkage between the alpha-amino group of one amino acid and the alpha-carboxyl group of another, with the elimination of the elements of water
Oligopeptide
A few amino acids joined by peptide bonds
Polypeptide
A long chain of amino acids linked by peptide bonds; the molecular weight is generally less than 10,000
Oligometric Protein
A multisubunit protein having two or more identical polypeptides chains
Promoter
A DNA sequence at which RNA polymerase may bind, leading to initiation of transcription
Conjugated Protein
A protein containing one or more prosthetic groups
Prosthetic Group
A metal ion or an organic compound (other than an amino acid) that is covalently bound to a protein and is essential to its activity
Primary Structure
A descrioption of the covalent backbone of a polymer (macromolecule), including the sequence of monomeric subunits and any interchain and intrachain covalent bonds
Secondary Structure
The residue-by-residue conformation of the backbone of a polymer
Tertiary Stucture
The 3D conformation of a polymer in its native fold
Quaternary Structure
The 3D structure of a multisubunit protein; particularly the manner inwhich the subunits fit together
Fractionation
The process of separating the proteins or other components of a complex molecular mix into fractions based on differences in their physical properties, such as size, net charge, and solubility; Ex: Dialysis-size of prots
Column Chromotography
A procedure that takes advantage of differences in protein charge, size, binding affinity, and other properties to separate two or more
High-Performance Liquid Chromotography (HPLC)
Chromatographic procedure, often conducted at relatively high pressures, using automated equipment that permits refined and highly reproducible profiles
Electrophoresis
Movement of charged solutes in response to an electrical field; often used to separate mixtures of ions, proteins, or nucleic acids
Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS)
A detergent that binds to most proteins-it is used in an electrophoretic method commonly employed for estimation of purity and molecular weight
Isoelectric Focusing
An electrophoretic method for separating macromolecules on the basis of their isoelectric pH
Edman Degradation
A procedure that labels and removes only the amino-terminal residue from a peptide, leaving all other peptide bonds intact
Proteases
Catalyze the hydrolytic cleavage of peptide bonds
Lateral Gene Transfer
The rare transfer of a gene or group of genes from one organism to another
Homologous Proteins (Homologs)
Proteins having sequences and functions similar in different species; Ex: the hemoglobins
Paralog
Two homologs present in the same species
Ortholog
Genes in different organisms that possess a clear sequence and functional relationship to each other
Signature Sequence
One of many biochemical clues that can help establish evolutionary relatedness