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23 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
A. Jean Baptiste Lamarck
1. Early 1800s
2. First to develop theory of evolution
3. 3 ideas
4. - organisms make a conations effort to improve
5. – improving causes body structures to develop- others waste away
6. – once a structure is changed it is inherited by an offspring
7. ideas were wrong
B. August Weisman
1. German biologist
2. 1889
3. Showed Lamarck’s ideas were wrong
C. Charles Darwin
1. 1800s- son of a very wealthy physician
2. Did not like medicine at all- loved botany and biology
3. Voyage of HMS Beagle- 5 year trip around the world- Darwin went along as the naturalist- he took detailed notes
4. upon his return in 1836- scientific community was excited about his data
D. Thomas Malthus
1. 1776- 1834- English Economist
2. wrote a book on population and society
3. “Human pop. Growing unchecked and would double every 25 years
4. “Humans will be involved in a struggle for existence- competing for limited resources
5. This book greatly helped Darwin
E. Darwin’s work
1. 1844- he wrote a paper on his new theory of natural selection
2. his theory is natural selection
F. Four major points
1. Variations exists among individuals of a population
2. Some variations are favorable
3. Those that survive and reproduce are those usually have the best favorable traits and variations
4. Over a long period of time these small traits accumulate and populations change
G. Natural Selection
1. Nature and the environment select those individuals with the best chance to survive
H. Adaptation
an inherited trait that increases chance of survival
I. The origin of Species
1. Book written by Charles Darwin in 1859
2. clearly and logically presented the idea of natural selection and it affect on evolution
3. This book changed biology forever
J. Population
a group of individuals that belong to a certain species live in a certain area and breed with others in that group
K. Genetics has helped to explain and understand Darwin’s ideas
L. Updating Darwin’s Ideas
1. natural selection causes changes with in populations
2. a. microevolution- changes that happen with in a species over time
M. Isolation Leads to species Formation
1. Australia
N. Extinction Leads to Species replacement
1. As dinosaurs died and became extinct humans replaced them
O. Evidence for Macroevolution
1. Fossils- remains or evidence of ancient life bones, teeth, shells, imprint, footprint
2. Niche- the way of life of an organism and its use of the environment
3. Paleontologist- scientist who studies ancient life and fossils
Q. Chemical evidence of changes
1. similar amino acids, proteins, chemical, show similarities and differences
R. Anatomy/ Physical Evidence
1. Homologous structures- similar structures function
2. Vestigial structure- structure that don’t serve any purpose or function anymore
3. a. Coccyx- tail bone
4. b. Appendix-
5. Embryonic development
1. Directional Selection
2. a. Environmental conditions favor curtain individuals which cause a general population change
3. b. Peppered Moth story
4. Disruptive Selection
5. a. the most common phenotype is selected against
6. Stabilizing Selection
7. a. favors individuals with average phenotypes
8. Genetic Drift
9. A. an accidental change in gene frequency
10. b. tends to affect small populations rather then large ones
11. c. Grass fire- destroys all white flowers- next year the Field has mostly red flowers
T. Divergent Evolution
1. When isolated populations evolve independently
U. Adaptive Radiation
many related species evolve from a common ancestral species
V. Adaptive Convergence
1. Convergent evolution
2. When different species become structurally more similar over time
3. Shark and whale becoming more and more similar