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77 Cards in this Set

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Double helix
2 long chain molecules spiraled around each other, resembling a "twisted ladder"
Watson & Crick
1953, two researchers who determined that DNA was a double helix molecule
Friedrich Miescher
person who first identified DNA in 1869
None
Oswald Avery
shape and functioning of DNA
None
Rosalind Franklin
provided a crucial x-ray photograph, demonstrated that DNA had a double helix shape.
Nucleus
where DNA is located
Chromosomes
DNA bundled into groups of chromosomes inside nucleus
Sugar
Deoxyribose (sugar) is a 5 carbon-ringed sugar, missing one hydroxyl (-OH)
Phosphate
molecular subunit made up of a phosphorous atom and four oxygen atoms
Hydrogen Bonds
how the nitrogen bases (A, T, G & C) are loosely attached to each other.
None
Nitrogen Bases
The steps or rungs of which the DNA molecules are made up of: Adenine, Thymine, Guanine & Cytosine
None
Uracil
nitrogen base found in RNA, not DNA
3 Functions of DNA
replication, gene code, mold for RNA
Replication
process when DNA uncoils and splits in two, each half provides a mold for the other side
Codon
code/message for an amino acid, every 3 bases
Gene
message for the protein
Gene Code
the message of heredity
RNA
makes proteins in cytoplasm of cell
DNA-RNA Differences (2)
Sugar in RNA is Ribose, Thymine is replaced by Uracil.
4 Types of RNA
messenger RNA, transfer RNA, ribosomal RNA, small RNA
m-RNA appearance
half strand of DNA
m-RNA function
forms a mold on which the proteins are built
Transcription
process where DNA makes RNA in the nucleus
Translation
process where RNA goes into cytoplasm to make protein
t-RNA
form of RNA which transports amino acids
Anti-Codon
sequence of 3 bases on t-RNA which are direct opposites to a codon on M-RNA
Small RNAs
operate many of the cell’s controls, particularly regulating levels of gene expression, range in length from 21-28
MicroRNAs (miRNA)
inhibit translation of RNA into protein
Regulator
portion of gene which may be detached, produces a M-RNA that produces a "repressor protein"
Repressor
protein that can regulate a gene by turning it on and off
Promoter
The "on switch." A base sequence on DNA where RNA polymerase binds, an enzyme that initiates the synthesis (transcription) of M-RNA.
Operator
the “off switch.”
Exon
The actual part of the DNA gene which codes for a protein
None
Intron
“non-coding” segments of DNA between the exons of a gene
None
Exon Shuffling
recombination between protein coding regions (exons) of different genes
Enhancers
short region of DNA, can be bound with proteins, to enhance transcription levels of genes in a gene-cluster. does not need to be particularly close to the genes it acts on, but it is on the same chromosome.
Gregor Mendel
the "father of genetics" for his study of the inheritance of traits in pea plants.
None
Locus
specific points on chromosomes where genes are located
Allele
alternate forms of the same gene (ex. eye color-blue, green, brown)
Meiosis
the division of a cell into 4 daughter cells with each resulting cell having only half the # of chromosomes as the starting cell
Diploid
A cell that has two sets of chromosomes; one set from the father and one from the mother
Dominant
The gene that is displayed or expressed in a mixed pair (heterozygote)
Recessive
The gene which is not displayed or expressed
Haploid
a single set of chromosomes (half of the full set of genetic material). In humans, the haploid number of chromosomes is 23.
Shared Dominance
when 2 genes in the allele pair are expressed equally
Homozygote
when two genes in an allele are the same (identical)
Heterozygote
when two genes in an allele are different
Genotype
the “representation” of a gene
Phenotype
the displayed trait that you see (red hair, green eyes)
Polygenic
Traits controlled by more than one pair of genes
None
Multi-factorial
when two or more genes work together to lead to a phenotype
None
X-Linked
gene located on the x-chromosome
Autosomal
A locus on any chromosome but a sex chromosome. Not sex-linked.
Huntington’s Disorder
located on chromosome 4, Causes severe nervous disorders which become progressively worse.
Dwarfism
chromosome 4, Condition characterized by normal head and torso development by short limbs.
Cystic Fibrosis
chromosome 7, Produce thick mucous in lungs which impede breathing
Sickle Cell Anemia
chromosome 11, An inherited, defect in hemoglobin, causes distortion (sickling) and loss of functional red blood cells, causes damage to organs throughout the body.
Tay Sachs
chromosome 15, Effected individuals cannot remove waste products from nerve cells
Hemophelia
x-linked disorder
Aneuploidy
Variation in chromosome number involving one or a small number of chromosomes
Translocation
Material (genes) switch from 1 chromosome to the other in the pair.
Trisomy
an extra chromosome
Monosomy
missing chromosome
Genome (Human)
all genes of an organism
Down’s Syndrome
Moderate retardation combined with systemic problems
Turner’s Syndrome
Females short, infertile, heavy neck, do not develop secondary sexual characteristics.
25th Chromosome
mitochondria of the cell that possess DNA, chromosome M
Restriction Enzyme
group of enzymes that bacteria possesses which are able to split or cut DNA
RFLP
slight differences in non-critical portions of their DNA
None
Tandem Repeats
A segment of DNA where the base sequence keeps repeating
Microsatellites (STRP)
tandem repeats of short nucleotide sequences
None
Electrophoresis
process of ‘pulling’ the DNA fragments through an agar gel
PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction)
process of making many copies of DNA from a small sample
GM Products
genetically modified
SNP’s
Single base differences found in each gene and contribute to our individuality
Gene Chips/Microarrays
Small devices containing 5,000 short segments of DNA which can be used to rapidly identify specific genetic defects
PGD (Pre-implantation Genetic Diagnosis)
A technique in which embryos are tested for specific genetic disorders before being replaced into the womb