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126 Cards in this Set

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Patterns of inheritance that are not straightfoward are called what?
Extension of Mendelian genetics
What happens when the offspring of 2 different parents has a phenotype that is intermediate to either parents?
The trait is said to display incomplete dominance
If a red flower and a white flower cross, using incomplete dominance, what color would the flower be?
Pink
Predicting inheritance is more difficult for traits that are controlled by what?
By many genes; also called polygenic (related to the environment)
What is codominance?
when both alleles are expressed
What is multiple allelism?
When there are more than 2 allele options for the gene
What concept does Multiple Allelism apply to?
ABO blood typing system
How can you get Blood Type A? Blood type B? Blood type AB? Blood type O?
AA
AO
BB
BO
AB
OO
What is the only thing that blood typing can show??
whether two people may be related or not
What is hemophilia? What is it an example of?
a genetic blood-clotting disorder and an example of pleiotropy, the ability of one gene to affect many different functions
Does the mother or father determine the sex of the offspring?
The father
Do egg cells contain X or Y chromosomes?
And sperm cells?
Egg cells have X
Sperm cells have X or Y
What is nondisjunction? Describe what it does to the number of chromosomes?
Nondisjunction happens when the homologous pairs do not separate during meiosis I or II. It results in gamates with an incorrect # of chromosomes, which could result in offspring with an incorrect number of chromosomes.
Having an incorrect number of chromosomes is usually ___________ to the organism
detrimental
The genes on the X or Y chromosomes are called what?
Sex-linked genes
Which sex chromosome is larger? X or Y?
X!
Are males or females more susceptible to X-linked diseases?
Males are because they only get one X chromosome from their mother, so there really isn't any other option. Females are less likely because they have two X chromosomes to use genes from.
What is X inactivation?
it allows some female organisms to shut off their X chromosomes
If women do not get the X-linked disease, what can still happen?
They can be carriers and pass the disease on to offspring, especially sons
Who do fathers pass their Y-Linked genes to?
Only their sons
What are some Y-linked traits?
Abnormally hair ears
Infertility, hypertrichosis (werewolf syndrome)
What are the three types of DNA analyses?
Protein electrophoresis
Microsatelite analysis
DNA sequencing
Where can DNA be isolated from?
blood, semen, vaginal fluids, hair, roots, skin, skeletal remain, organs, etc.
After you obtain a sample of DNA, how do you amplify (make more copies of) it?
Put the DNA in a test tube
Add a ton of A, T, G, C
Increase temp. to unwind DNA
Add in Taq polymerase, which can make DNA at high temps
Repeatedly heat and cool to make millions of DNA copies
Describe protein electrophoresis
Fragments of DNA from restriction enzyme cleavage are separated from each other when they migrate through a support called agarose gel
An electric current is applied so the gel will impede the larger DNA fragments more than the smaller ones
The fragments move toward the positively charged end, because DNA is negative due to the phosphate group
Describe micro-satellite analysis
Different sections of DNA are analyzed
Different individuals will have diff numbers of base pairs at this section of DNA based on genes and alleles
Individuals will be either hetero or homo for these genes @ these different loci
A DNA sequencer analyzes these differences with a chromatogram
Describe DNA sequencing
Look at the individual genetic code of an organism and can tell how different or similar 2 or more people, populations, species are
What can you use all of the DNA analyses stuff for?
Forensic science
Paternity determination
Measuring population divergence
Determining how closely related species are
Determining cryptic species
Understanding speciation
Understanding mating systems
Anthropological investigations
What 3 major functions does DNA serve?
Replication (DNA to DNA)
Transcription (DNA to RNA)
Translation (DNA to RNA to protein)
Genes carry instructions for building proteins in a process called what?
Protein synthesis
Does DNA ever leave the nucleus of a cell?
NO
Define a gene
a sequence of DNA that encodes proteins
Each protein has a unique function dictated by what?
By its particular structure
What factors contribute to how a protein folds?
The charge of the protein and whether or not it is hydrophobic or hydrophillic
What does the primary structure of a protein look like?
It is a linear chain of amino acids
What does the quatenary structure of a protein look like?
It is all folded into a 3D structure
Is the gene copy comprised of DNA or RNA?
RNA
What main 3 differences exist between DNA and RNA?
DNA is double stranded, while RNA is single stranded.
DNA is deoxyribose (lacks an oxygen) while RNA is ribose (has that extra oxygen)
The nitrogenous bases of DNA are A, T, G, C. The nitrogenous bases of RNA are A, U, G, C.
What are the three types of RNA?
mRNA (messenger RNA)
tRNA (transfer RNA)
rRNA (ribosomal RNA)
What does mRNA do?
It carries coding info from DNA template to the ribosomes
What does tRNA do?
It transfers a specific amino acid to the ribosome
What does rRNA do?
It decodes mRNA @ the ribosome and interacts w/tRNA
What is the central dogma of biology?
DNA-->RNA-->Protein
What does transcription involve?
producing a copy of the required gene
What does translation involve?
Decoding the copied RNA sequence and producing the protein for which it codes
Where does transcription occur?
In the nucleus
What does the enzyme RNA polymerase do?
It binds to the promoter and makes an mRNA molecule complementary to the DNA gene
Where does translation occur?
In the cytoplasm
mRNA carries the code from where to where?
from the DNA to the ribosomes
Amino acids are assembled to synthesize proteins at what location in the cell?
At the ribosomes
tRNA carries amino acids, which do what?
Bind to three-letter nucleotide sequences in the mRNA
The three-letter sequences of nucleotides are called what?
Codons
The codons on the mRNA match with what?
With the anticodons on the tRNA
The protein is built starting with what type of codon on the RNA and is built until there is what type of codon on the RNA?
It starts at a START codon and ends at a STOP codon
The sequence from DNA dictates what?
the order of amino acids in the proteins
How many codon combinations are there?
How many of these actually code for a protein?
64
60
How many start codons are there? What is it?
One; AUG
How many stop codons are there?
3
How many amino acids are there?
20
What is the first amino acid in every protein? Why?
Methionine; this is the start codon
What is it called when multiple codons code for the same amino acid?
Redundancy
What does ambiguity refer to with codons?
No one codon can call for more than one amino acid
What does it mean that the genetic code is universal?
It is used by all living organisms on the planet
What happens if mutations to DNA affect proteins?
the resulting protein can be different or nonfunctional
What is a neutral mutation? Does it affect the resulting protein?
The amino acid that is called for remains the same
It has no effect on the resulting protein
What is a substitution mutation?
Does it affect the resulting protein?
No bases are added or deleted, but different base codes for a different amino acid
Can have no effect or a relatively small effect on resulting protein b/c it only affects one amino acid
What is a frameshift mutation?
Does it affect the resulting protein?
Sometimes bases are either added or deleted by mistake, making every amino acid to be read incorrectly
It can have devastating effects on the resulting protein
How do prokaryotes keep gene expression turned off?
by blocking the promoter w/a repressor protein
How do eukaryotes regulate gene expression?
by controlling the rate of transcription
Sometimes cells can block transcription by having what?
By having repressors covering the promoters so the RNA polymerase can't bind and start transcription
All organisms are merely different combos of 4 what?
different combos of 4 nitrogenous bases (A, T, G, C)
Is there a law in the US that requires GMOs to be labeled?
NO!
Study slide pages 3 & 4 of genetic engineering for the three steps of cutting out the genes of one organism and entering them into the genes of another organism!
DO IT!
Manufacturers must get FDA approval for a food not _______________________________________, including new genetically engineered food substances
generally recognized as safe (GRAS)
The FDA declared milk from rBGH cows safe for consumption in 1993, after minimum or no what?
Testing
Genetic modification of crops can increase their _________, ________, _________
shelf life, yield, and nutritive value
What benefits do GMOs have?
herbicide resistance
pesticide resistance
increased weather tolerance
fortified with increase nutrients
greater yields
Much of the national debate on GMOs has centered on calls for what?
labeling laws
Proponents say what will enable consumers to make better decisions?
labels
Opponents counter that labeling is unnecessary in the absence of any what?
Of any proven health risk posed by GMOs
About what percentage of all food in US markets are GMOs?
About 90%
GM foods can cause what type of reactions?
Allergic reactions
Newly inserted genes into foods may also encode proteins that prove to be what?
that prove to be toxins
Beyond their impact on the human body, concerns over GM crops are....
their effect on the surrounding environment
the evolution of resistant pests (like the corn borer)
transfer of modified genes to wild and weedy relatives
the decreased genetic variation/diversity
What famous book did Charles Darwin publish on evolution? In what year?
"On the Origin of Species by Natural Selection"
1859
What two meanings does evolution have to biologists?
In which meaning does contention arise?
Process and theory
The contention arises in the theory part
What is Dr. Jellen's definition of evolution?
Morphological changes through evolutionary time
These changes over time are brought about by genes, the pieces of DNA that give all living things their individual characteristics
Define species
a group whose members are descended from a common ancestor and who all possess a combination of certain defining traits
Define biological population
a group of individuals of the same "species" living in the same geographic area
Define natural seletion
the differential survival and reproduction of individuals in a population
Also, the process by which populations adapt to their environment and the process which drives evolution
Do individuals evolve?
Why or why not?
NO!
evolution is a genetic thing. Changes occurs from one generation to the next
Which has been widely observed, quantified, tested, and accepted? The process or theory of evolution?
The process
What is the theory of evolution?
All organisms present on Earth today are descendants of a single common ancestor, and all organisms represent the product of millions of years of small changes
Give the Linnaean hierarchy from broad to narrow
Domain
Kingdom
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Genus
Species
What is the theory of common descent?
The idea that all living things on the planet can be traced back to a common ancestor
Describe what Charles Darwin did to come up with his idea of natural selection.
He went on a 5 Year voyage aboard the HMS Beagle. He studied tortoises and finches on the Galapogos Islands. He noticed differences in the special of tortoises and birds among the different islands, and concluded that the different species must have evolved from a common ancestor. He took 20 years to publish his book.
Among who is the theory of evolution still highly controversial? Scientists or non-scientists.
Non-scientists
Creationism is one of the alternatives to evolution. Describe it.
A divide entity created the universe and everything in it.
Millions believe in it.
Can we test creationism with the scientific method? Why or why not?
No. It deals with the supernatural.
Intelligent design is one of the alternatives to evolution. Describe it.
The intricacy and complexity of the universe and living things is best explained by an intelligent design, not an undirected process, such as natural selection
What do people often use as support of God's existence? Why is this support a problem?
People often use miracles to support God's existence, but this doesn't work if you define miracles as events brought about by God.
What has to happen for something to be considered a miracle?
There cannot be a rational explanation, and it cannot be scientifically tested.
What are the 2 main criticisms of evolution?
There is no adequate explanation for the origin of life from dead chemicals
The fossil record, our only documentation of whether evolution actually occurred in the past, lacks many transitional forms
What is the static model?
An alternative to evolution that says that species arise separately and do not change over time
What is the transformation model?
An alternative to evolution that says that species arise separately but do change over time in order to adapt to the changing environment
What is the separate types model?
An alternative to evolution that says that species do change over time, and new species can arise; but each group of species derives from a separate ancestor that arose independently
Classification systems group organisms by similarities in what 3 things?
Habitat, diet, behavior
Who created Linnaean classification?
Carl van Linne
Linnaean classification also organizes organisms according to what?
Shared physical similarities in a hierarchy
Define scientific theory
a body of scientifically acceptable general principles which are supported by numerous lines of evidence and have withstood repeated rigorous experimental tests
Define homology
the similarity in characteristics that has resulted from common ancestry
What four things can you use to view similarities between organisms?
Behavior
DNA
Geography
Physical structure (anatomy)
Certain structures are identical in different animals, but are used for different functions.
This is an example of what?
This similarity is evidence for what?
This is homology
It is evidence for common ancestry
What are vestigial traits?
Give an example
Similarities between functional traits in one organism and nonfunctional features in another
Primates have useful tails. Humans have tails, but they are no longer useful to us, and they are much smaller.
What are analogous structures?
Structures that are similar in function and/or appearance but have derived separately from different ancestors
Homology can also occur in development. What does this mean?
Early embryos look very similar, even for animals that look very different as adults
Describe Homology in Biochemistry. What does this examine?
This examines the relatedness of sequences of DNA to see how closely related organisms are to each other.
What is biogeography?
Pattern of distribution of species on the continents
Related to biogeography is convergence. What is convergent evolution?
The development of similar adaptations to a common environmental problem in distantly related species
What are hominins?
Humans and human ancestors
What is the missing link in evolution?
A common ancestor of humans and chimpanzees
What does radiometric dating use?
What is it based on?
It uses the decay of radioactive elements in the fossil to determine age
It is based on the half-life
The oldest rocks found to date place Earth at how old?
4.5 billion years
How does science reject the transformation model of evolution?
The evidence of relationships among organisms abound.
How does science reject the static model of evolution?
Earth is older than 10,000 years, and species have clearly changed over time.
How does science reject the separate types model of evolution?
Universality of DNA, genetic code, and cell components are evidence of a single origin of all life.