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154 Cards in this Set

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Define cellular respiration
process by which some organisms obtain energy from organic substances (primarily sugar)
Define photosynthesis
process by which CO2 is converted into organic substances (primarily sugar)
Why are chloroplasts green?
Because of light energy
Name two things beside plants that can undergo photosynthesis
Bacteria and protysts
Once nutrients are in our cells, what do we do with them?
Harness energy from the nutrients
Breaking off of what during cellular respiration releases energy?
Breaking off of a phosphate group releases energy
What does cellular respiration do?
It convets energy stored in chemical bonds into energy used by cells
What do cells use as their energy source?
ATP
What is the energy currency of our cells?
ATP
What does ATP stand for?
Adenosine triphosphate
The release of a what from ATP liberates stored energy? What is this compared to?
The release of a phosphate from ATP liberates stored energy. This is compared to the release of energy when you let go of a rubber band.
What are the three functions of ATP?
Mechanical work
Transport Work
Chemical Work
Give an example of mechanical work done by ATP
movement of proteins in muscles
Give an example of transport work done by ATP
movement of substances across membranes
Give an example of chemical work done by ATP
making complex molecules out of simple molecules
ATP is in high demand throughout our bodies and is regenerated from what through what process?
ATP is regenerated from ADP through cellular respiration
What are the two types of cellular respiration?
Aerobic (with oxygen)
Anaerobic (without oxygen)
Where does aerobic cellular respiration occur?
In the mitochondria of the cell
Where does anaerobic cellular respiration occur?
In the ctyosol of the cell
Which is more efficient? Aerobic or anaerobic cellular respiration?
Aerobic respiration is much more efficient
What is a by-product of anerobic respiration and what does this by-product lead to?
The by-product is lactic acid, and it can elad to cramps
All food is broken down to produce what?
ATP
What are the three stages of cellular respiration?
Glycolosis ("glucose cutting"
Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle)
Electron transport
Which steps in cellular respiration are anaerobic? Which are aerobic?
Anaerobic: Glycolysis
Aerobic: Krebs Cycle and Electron Transport Chain
Describe glycolysis
6-carbon glucose molecule is broken down into 2 3-carbon pyruvic acid molecules in the cytoplasm
Generates 4 ATP's, but requires 2 (so only a net of +2 ATP molecules)
Describe the krebs cycle
Two pryuvic acid molecules enter mitochondria where they are broken down into 2 carbon molecules
The Krebs cycle strips them fo CO2 and electrons
CO2 and electrons are produced/released
Describe the Electron transport chain
It shuttles electrons back and forth along the chain, which generates energy
Fats are broken down into what and what?
Glycerol and fatty acids
Proteins are broken down into their component what?
Amino acids
What is the ultimate source of energy for our planet?
The sun
Plants use light energy to rearrange the atoms of CO2 and H2O into what?
Carbohydrates
Photosynthesis is carried out in organelles called what?
Chloroplasts
Chloroplasts are comprised of what two things?
Stroma (a thick fluid holding the...)
Thylakoids (called grana when in stacks)
Products of photosynthesis (sugars) then undergo what in the cytosol and mitochondria?
Cellular respiration
What is another by-product of photosynthesis?
Oxygen
Where does CO2 enter and oxygen exit in land plants?
Through structures on the surface of the leaf called stomata
What are the two steps in photosynthesis?
Step 1: Light reactions (light energy is harvested)
Step 2: Calvin cycle (sugar is made)
Study the last 2 slides on page 9 of the photosynthesis notes.
ok
The products of photosynthesis are the reactants for what?
The products of cellular respiration are the reactants for what?
Cellular respiration
Photosynthesis
We use nutrients for growth, maintenance, and reproduction. Which of the three is mitosis and meiosis involved in, respectively?
Mitosis: growth, maintenance
Meiosis: reprodution
What percentage of time do cells spend dividing?
5-10%
Why do chromosomes condense and line up?
It makes separating and moving the DNA much easier
What is cancer?
Unregulated cellular division
Unregulated cellular division leads to what?
A tumor, a mass of cells w/no apparent function in the body
Cellular division is regulated so that cells divide only when what?
When more cells are required and conditions are appropriate
For what purposes do cells divide?
To heal wounds, replace damaged cells, growth, reproduction
What are benign tumors?
Tumors that do not affect surrounding structures
What are malignant tumors?
Tumors that invade surrounding structures and are cancerous
Malignant tumors can sometimes break away and start new cancers through what process?
Metastasis
Cancer travels through the body by way of what two systems?
The lymphatic and the circulatory systems
The lymphatic system collects fluids lost from what?
The capillaries
After cells metastasize, cells gain access to which system? What does this access to this system allow the cells to do?
They gain access to the circulatory system which allows them access to almost anywhere in the body
In what three ways do cancer cells differ from normal cells?
Cancer cells:
divide when they should not
invade surrounding tissue
move to other locations in the body
What are the two types of cellular division with regard to reproduction?
Sexual and asexual cellular division
In sexual reproduction, genetic information comes from how many parents?
2
In asexual reproduction, genetic information comes from how many parents?
1
Cellular division as a result of sexual reproduction is called what?
Meiosis
Cellular division as a result of asexual reproduction is called what?
Mitosis
Sexual reproduction results in the formation of what type of cells?
Sex cells
Asexual reproduction results in the formation of what type of cells?
Somatic (body) cells
The cells produced from asexual reproduction are a what of the parent cell?
An identical copy
Give a few examples of organisms that reproduce by the method of asexual reproduction?
Amoebas, some plants, some salamanders, some lizards and fish
Before dividing, a copy of what must first be made?
DNA
Where is DNA located in eukaryotic cells and what does it carry?
It is located within the nucleus and it carries genes
Each chromosome is copied and the copy is called a what?
A sister chromatid
Genes contain the instructions for what?
For building the proteins that cells require
How many chromosomes do humans have?
46
DNA is organized into structures called what? What can these structures carry?
The structures are called chromosomes and can carry hundreds of genes along their length
When a chromosome is replicated during cell division, the copy carries the same number of what?
DNA and genes
The sister chromatid is connected to the original DNA by a what?
A centromere
DNA is a double stranded molecule made of what?
Made of 2 single strands of nucleotids that are bonded together
The handrails of the DNA molecule are called the backbone, which is made of what two things?
Sugars and phosphates
What are the rungs of the DNA molecule made of?
Nitrogenous bases
What three things are nucleotides comprised of?
A sugar, a phosphate, and a nitrogen-containing base
What is DNA comprised of?
Long strings of nucleotides
Adenine pairs with what in DNA?
Guanine pairs with what in DNA?
Thymine
Cytosine
Adenine pairs with what in RNA?
Guanine pairs with what in RNA?
Uracil
Cytosine
Who determined the structure of the DNA molecule?
James Watson and Francis Crick
When DNA is undergoing replication, the DNA molecule separates at what type of bond that holds the bases together?
It separates at the hydrogen bonds
What enzyme adds the correct base to the new single strand of DNA during DNA replication?
The enzyme DNA polymerase
After DNA replication, each new DNA molecule is what?
Half new and half from the old molecule
When an entire chromosome is copied, the two sister chromatids are connected at the what?
at the centromere
Is mitosis sexual or asexual division?
Asexual
What are the three major steps or stages to the cell cycle in mitosis?
Interphase
Mitosis
Cytokinesis
What are the products of mitosis?
2 new daughter cells identical to the original cell
What 6 things happen in interphase?
Organelles duplicated
Cell gets larger
DNA is copied
Chromosomes are replicated
Sister chromatids connected by centromeres
Synthesis of proteins necessary for mitosis
What are the four steps of mitosis?
Prophase
Metaphase
Anaphase
Telophase
What happens in prophase?
The replicated chromosomes condense
Microtubules form at the poles of the cell
The nuclear envelope disintegrates
What happens in metaphase?
Replicated chromosomes line up across equator of the cell
Microtubules attach to the centromeres
What happens in anaphase?
The centromere splits
Microtubules pull sister chromatids apart towards poles
What happens in telophase?
Nuclear envelope reforms around chromosomes
Chromosomes revert to uncondensed form
What happens in cytokinesis?
The cell itself divides in half creating two identical daughter cells
Mutations can be in cell control proteins called what?
proto-oncogenes
How can mutations to cells occur?
They can be inherited or induced by exposure to carcinogens that damage DNA and chromosomes
What in normal cells prevents them from dividing all the time, which would force the new cells to pile up on each other
Contact inhibition
How does anchorage dependence work in normal cells and in cancer cells?
In normal cells, cells always stay anchored to other cells (or to a surface).
In cancer cells, there is no anchorage dependence, so cells can move freely.
Most cells divide how many times before division stops?
60-70
How many times can cancer cells divide?
Indefinitely
Can a cell become malignant because of one change or hit to the cell?
No. It requires multiple hits or changes for a cancer cell to become malignant.
What is a biopsy?
The surgical removal of cells, tissue, or fluid for analysis
What are three types of treatment for cancer?
Laproscopy: incision made and tumor surgically removed
Chemotherapy: chemicals that kill dividing cells are injected into the bloodstream
Radiation therapy: high energy particles damage DNA so cells won't divide
Where does meiosis occur?
Within the gonads, or sex organ (testes and ovaries)
What type of cells does meiosis produce?
Gametes (sex cells: sperm & egg)
Chromosomes have _______ the chromosomes that somatic cells have
half
Fertilization results in what?
A full compliment of chromosomes
What is a karyotype?
a picture of the complete set of chromosomes
Humans have how many pairs of homologous chromosomes? What does this consist of?
23
It consists of 22 pairs of autosomes and a pair of sex chromosomes
Each homologous pair has the same what?
Genes
Different variations of the same gene are called what?
Alleles
What happens during interphase of meiosis?
The DNA is copied and the homologous chromosomes consist of sister chromatids
What major thing happens in meiosis I?
Homologous pairs are separated
What major thing happens in meiosis II?
Sister chromatids are separated
What happens in prophase I?
homologous pairs come together
What happens in metaphase I?
the homologous pairs line up at the equator
What happens in anaphase I?
the homologous pairs separate
What happens in telophase I?
the nuclear envelopes reform
What happens in prophase II?
nuclear envelopes disappear
What happens in metaphase II?
sister chromatids line up at the equator
What happens in anaphase II?
sister chromatids separate
What happens in telophase II?
nuclear envelopes reform
How many cells result from meiosis?
4
Are the daughter cells of meiosis haploid or diploid?
Haploid; they have half the genetic info as the parent
Describe crossing over
When the homologous pairs are in prophase 1 of meiosis, they can exchange genetic information
What does crossing over do?
It adds a ton of genetic variation
Describe random alignment
When the homologous pairs line up during metaphase I of meiosis, the way they place themselves is random
What is the biggest leading cause of cancer that the book identifies?
SMOKING!
Who is the father of genetics?
Gregor Mendel
What is the law of segregation?
Each gamete receives only one copy of a gene
What is the law of independent assortment?
alleles of different genes assort independently of one another during gamete formation
What is quantitative genetics?
The study of continuous traits (height, weight) and their underlying mechanisms
Most children are similar to who?
Their parents
Siblings tend to be similar to whom?
To each other
Each child is a combination of what?
Parental traits
The combination of what two traits is unique for each child?
Paternal and maternal traits
_______ are segments of DNA that carry info about how to make proteins
Genes
Structural proteins
for things like hair
Functional proteins
for things like breaking down lactose
All cells have the same what?
the same genes
For each gene, there is a _______ percent chance of having the same allele as a sibling
50
How many combinations are there for the way the homologous chromosomes could line up and separate?
Over 8 million
Gametes combine randomly--without regard to the alleles they carry in a process called what?
Random fertilization
What four things results in unique combinations of alleles?
Mutation, crossing over, independent assortment, random fertilization
Are fraternal twins identical?
Are they monozygotic or dizygotic?
How many eggs involved?
No.
They are dizygotic.
2 eggs were separately fertilized
Are identical twins identical?
Are they monozygotic or dizygotic?
How many eggs involved?
Yes
They are monozygotic
One fertilized egg separated into two
Define genotype
combination of alleles
Define homozygous
2 of same alleles
Define heterozygous
2 different alleles
Define phenotype
the physical outcome of the genotype
define dominant
can mask a recessive allele
define recessive
can be masked by a dominant allele
define incomplete dominance
alleles produce an intermediate phenotype
define codominance
both alleles are fully expressed
Name 3 genetic diseases and how they result
Cystic fibrosis: 2 recessive alleles
Huntington's disease: 2 dominant alleles
Sickle-cell anemia: codominant alleles
Punnett squares are used for what purpose?
to predict offspring phenotypes