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48 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
anything that has mass and volume
matter
is uniform in its composition and chemical properties and cannot be easily separated
pure substance
pure substances that contain only one type of atom and cannot be separated into simpler components
elements
two or more substances blended together
mixture
smallest and simplest particle of an element
atom
pure substances consisting of atoms combined in specific ratios that can be split into simpler substances by chemical reactions
chemical compounds
is the smallest particle of a compound that still retains the properties of that compound
molecule
positively charged subatomic particle that have mass
proton
electrically neutral subatomic particle that has mass
neutron
electrically negative sub atomic particle that is so small it essentially has no mass
electron
protons and neutrons are contained in this central part of the atom
nucleus
is the study of the chemistry of compounds that contain carbon and related compounds
organic chemistry
abbreviations or symbols that show how many atoms of each element are present
chemical formulas
average weight of an element's atoms
atomic weight (AW)
average mass of a substance's molecules
molecular weight (MW)
unit of measurement for the combined atomic and molecular weights
atomic mass unit
chart that organizes the symbols, chemical properties, and full names of all elements
periodic table
number of protons and atom contains
atomic number (Z)
sum of the number of protons and neutrons in an atom
mass number (A)
atoms of the same element that have different number of neutrons and thus having a different mass number
isotopes
electrically charged atoms
ion
positively charged ion
cation
negatively charged ion
anion
compounds that dissolve in water and separate into their original ionic form
water soluble
salts that break up into ions
electrolytes
concentration of electrolytes in a certain volume of solution
milliequivalent (mEq)
these are formed because of the natural attraction between positively charged cations and negatively charged anions and are the forces that hold ions together
ionic bonds
associations between electronegative atoms and a hydrogen atom attached to another electronegative atom
hydrogen bonds
a molecule in which each end had an equal but opposite charge
dipole
a change brought about by the interactions of one or more chemicals
chemical reaction
the precursor or starting substance of a chemical reaction
reactants
end result of a chemical reaction
product
a chemical reaction that requires energy and absorbs heat
endothermic
a chemical reaction that releases heat
exothermic
the measurement of the heat of a reaction
enthalpy
protein catalysts designed to speed up the rate of specific biochemical reactions
enzymes
substances that increase the reactions speed but are unchanged themselves at the end of the reaction
catalysts
a state of balance in a chemical reaction
chemical equilibrium
easily dissolved in water, means "water loving"
hydrophilic
not easily dissolved in water, means "water fearing"
hydrophobic
a substance that increases the concentration of hydrogen ions in a water solution
acid
a substance that decreases the concentration of hydrogen ions
base
blood that is too acidic
acidotic
blood that is too basic
alkalotic
any substance that can reversibly bind hydrogen (H+)
buffer
fact-acting defenses for acid-base changes, providing almost immediate protection against changes in the hydrogen ion concentration of extracellular fluid
buffer systems
a unit of base measure of atoms in which one mole of substance has a mass that is equal to the molecular weight of the substance
mole
the chemical term for strength of solutions, which is expressed in terms of the numbers of moles of solid dissolved in solvent to yield a given volume of solution
molarity (M)