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60 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is Audiology?
The study of hearing and hearing disorders.
What is an Audiologist?
individuals who " provide comprehensive diagnostic and rehabilitative services for all areas of auditory, vestibular, and related disorders.
What is Sound?
a type of energy which is the result of pressure waves that are the product of force being applied to a sound source.
What must be present to create a sound?
Vibration
What is vibration?
the back and forth motion of an object
What is Elasticity?
Air molecules attempt to move back to their original positions after they have been displaced.
What is Inertia?
the tendency of an object to remain in its current motion state. So, moving air molecules tend to want to remain in motion.
What is Brownian motion?
the innumerable air molecules that are constantly moving in a random manner.
What is compression?
When the molecules are close together. This state created high pressure in the atmosphere.
What is rarefaction?
Then the molecules are far apart. Which creates low pressure.
What is waveforms?
Representation of sound with amplitude on the vertical axis and time on the horizontal axis.
What is a spectrogram?
a spectacular way to display speech sounds because they show frequency, intensity, and time.
What is longitudinal waves?
the air molecules move parallel to the direction of the wave motion.
What is transverse waves?
the motion of the molecules is perpendicular to the direction of the wave motion.
What is a simple sound?
a sound that has all of its energy at one frequency, creating a pure tone.

Simple sounds are very rare and are created by tuning forks and pure tome audiometers.
What is complex sounds?
sounds that have every at more than one frequency and include, for example, the sound created by the human voice, musical instruments, and the heater in the corner of the room.
What is sinusoidal motion?
the simplest kind of sound wave motion that can occur in a medium.

AKA: simple harmonic motion.

The wave created is a sine wave.
What is peak amplitude?
the maximum displacement of the particles in a medium.

amplitude determines the intensity of a sound and is related to the force with which the original particle disurbance was created.
What is the difference between intensity and loudness?
intensity is veiwed as objective, it can be measured.

loudness is subjective experience involving the judgement and oerceotion of the listener regarding the intensity of the sound.
What is decibel (dB)?
the unit of measure for intensity most commonly used, which is one-tenth of a bel.
What is the sound pressure level (SPL)?
0 dB is a starting point for sound pressure with reference to human hearing ability.
What is that logarithmic scale?
a measurement scale based on exponents of a base number.
What is considered a cycle of a sound wave?
defined as air molecule movement from rest to maximum displacement in one direction, back to rest, and then to maximum displacement in the other direction.

More simply, a cycle is one compression and one rarefaction of a sound wave.
What is the period of a sound wave?
The time required to complete one cycle of vibration of a sound wave.
What is frequency?
an objetive measure that is determined by the number of cycles over time.
What is pitch?
the psychological correlate to frequency and although a person's judgment about the pitch of an acoustic event it related to the stimuli's frequency, it is also influenced by other factors, such as the listener's experience, the intensity of the signal, and whether the soud is perceived as pleasant.
What is hertz (Hz)?
the unit of measure for frequency.
What is velocity?
the speed at which sound tracels through this medium.
What is wavelength?
can be defined as the length of a wave, as measured from an arbitray point on a sine wave to the same point on the next cycle of the wave.
What is a phase?
an air molecule's locaiton at given point in time during displacement, relative to the degrees of a circle.
What is a threshold?
levels at which an individual "barely hears" the sound, for a variety of frequencies.
What is the air conduction pathway?
sound travels through the three parts of the ear. Through the pinna, ear canal, tympanic membrane, middle ear space, cochlea.
What is the bone conduction pathway?
largely bybasses the outer and middle ears, and sends the sound directly to the inner ear.

the sound wave does not pass through the ear canal and does not vibrate the eardrum or the ossicles of the middle ear space.

Instead, through subtle vibration of the bones of the skull, the sound is sent directly to the cochlea, which is part of the inner ear.
What is the normal hearing range?
-10dB to 25dB
What is considered mild hearing loss?
26dB-40dB
What is considered moderate hearing loss?
41dB-55dB
What is considered moderately severe hearing loss?
56dB-70dB
What is considered severe hearing loss?
71dB-90dB
What is considered profound hearing loss?
91dB- +
What is considered normal hearing range for children?
-10dB to 15dB
What is considered slight hearing loss for children?
16-25
What is considered mild hearing loss for children?
26-40
What is considered profoud hearing loss for children>
91+
What does an audiogram showing conductive hearing loss show?
the air conduction results are outside the normal hearing range.
What is masking?
the noise used in an attempt to eliminate the participation of one ear while the opposite ear is being tested.
What is a sound level meter
an electronic instrument that measure the intensity of sound in dB.
What is reverberation time?
the amount of time it takes for a sound to decrease by 60 dB once the original sound has been terminated.
Audiogram Key
1. AC Unmasked
2. AC Masked
3. BC Mastoid Unmasked
4. BC Mastoid Masked
5. BC Forehead Masked
6. BC Forehead Unmasked
7. Sound Field
Right Left
1. O X
2. ∆ ☐
3. < >
4. [ ]
5. ˥ ᴦ
6. v v
7. s s
Be able to label: Fig. 3.1 pg 56
Helix
Scaphoid fossa
Antihelix
Cymba Concha
Cavum concha
Antitragus
Lobe
Triangular fossa
Crus of helic
Tragus
Intertragal notch
Be able to label: Fig. 3.3 pg 59
Long process of incus
Pars flaccida
Pars tensa
Umbo
Annulus
Cone of light
Manubrium of malleus
Be able to label: Fig. 3.4 pg 59
Be able to label: Fig 3.5 pg 60
Malleus
Incus
Tensor tympani muscle
Attachment of manubrium of malleus to tympanic membrane
Attachment of footplate of stapes to oval window
Stapes
Stapedius muscle
Be able to label: Fig. 3.8 pg 65
Be able to label: Fig. 3.10 pg 67
Be able to label: Fig. 3.15 pg 75
Frontal Lobe
Parietal Lobe
Occipital Lobe
Heshl's gyrus
Temporal Lobe
that's all the labeling.
What is an audiometer?
the device that generates the pure tone signals used in testing hearing.
What is a transducer?
the device that converts one form of energy to another. eg. earphone or microphone.
What is it called when the pure tones are presented through speakers, testing both ears?
Sound Field Testing
What is the attenuator dial?
the dial used to increase or decrease the intensity of the signal.
What are supra-aural earphones?
earphones that rest on the outside of the pinna
What is a insert earphones?
fit directly into the external auditory canal.
What is tinnitus?
ringing in the ears
What is an otoscopy?
a visual examination of the ear canal and eardrum with an otoscope.