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58 Cards in this Set

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A bacterium can divide every 20 minutes so it would take 44 hours for the weight of the bacteria to equal the weight of the earth. Why are we not overrun by bacteria? (1-4)
The ability to divide quickly is only one factor in the survival of the species. Food is scarce so individuals have to compete. Natural selection chooses the mutants that find the most food.
Why does mitochondria have an inner and outer membrane? (1-5)
The outer membrane derived from the cell membrane of the eucaryotic cell. The inner from the aerobic bacterium. The cytosol contains the DNA from the ancestral bacterium.
Why did eucaryotic cells evolve elaborate internal membrane systems that allow them to import substances from the outside. (1-6)
Since they engulf food, they can feed on them efficiently. Bacteria can break down food externally but then they have to share other cells.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of light and electron microscopy? (1-7)
Light microscopy is much easier and simpler. The lower limit of resolution is 0.2 micrometers, 1000 times. Since light is non-destructive it is possible to view living cells. Electron microscopy is more complicated. Living cells cannot be observed. Resolution is 2 nanometers, 1 million times.
Why is yeast a model organism for cancer research? (1-8)
Yeast cells are much simpler than human cells and can be grown inexpensively in large quantities. The can also be modified genetically more easily than human cells. Cancer is problem in cell division so yeast can be used to better understand the processes involved.
Cytosol
The contents of the cytoplasm minus membrane-bound organelles.
Cytoplasm
Contents of the cell inside the cell membrane but outside the nucleus.
Mitochondria
Carries out oxidative phosphorylation and produces most of the ATP in eucaryotic cells.
Nucleus
The major organelle in eucaryotes. Contains chromosomes.
Chloroplasts
Organelle in plants that contains chlorophyll where photosynthesis takes place.
Lysosomes
Organelles containing digestive enzymes, has acidic pH.
Chromosomes
Composed of DNA and associated proteins.
Golgi Apparatus
Organelle that modifies and sorts lipids and proteins from the ER.
Peroxisomes
Uses oxygen to oxidize organic molecules. Contains enzymes that produce and degrade hydrogen peroxide.
Plasma Membrane
Phospholipid bilayer that surrounds the cell.
Endoplasmic Reticulum
Organelle where lipids are secreted and proteins are made.
Cytoskeleton
Protein filaments in the cytoplasm that gives cell shape and capacity for movement. Composed of actin filaments, microtubules and intermediate filaments.
Name the three major classes of filaments and how they are used. (1-13)
Actin filaments are involved in rapid movement such as the contraction of muscle. Intermediate filaments provide mechanical stability such as in the epidermis. Microtubules function as railroad tracks and are responsible for the separation of chromosomes during cell division.
Name an advantage to being multicellular. (1-18)
A plant can reach the soil with its roots for water and nutrients. While light and CO2 can be obtained by leaves. Also, protective structures can help the plant survive in harsh environments.
Name some evidence for a common ancestor. (1-20)
Many metabolic pathways are conserved from one cell to another. The compounds that make up nucleic acids and proteins are the same in all living cells.
Exonuclease
cleave the phosphodiester bond of dna at the end of the polynucelotide chain
Endonuclease
cleave the phosphodiester bond with a molecule of dna
Hydrolase
enzymes that catalyze a hydrolytic cleavage reaction
Synthase
enzymes that synthesize by condensing two molecules together
Isomerase
rearranges bonds within a single molecule
Kinase
catalyzes the addtion of phosphate groups to molecules
Phosphatase
hyrolytic removal of a phosphate group from a molecule
ATPase
Hydrolyze ATP
Describe the rRNAs and what makes them.
The large subunit is made up of 28S, 5.8S and 5S. The small subunit is 18S. RNA Polymerase I makes 28S, 5.8S and 18S, while RNA Plymerase III makes 5S.
What are Ribozymes and give 4 examples.
They are enzymes made out of RNA. Self-splicing RNA, snoRNA (processes rRNA), Spliceosomes, and rRNA peptide bond formation.
Discuss: "The structure and function of a living cell are dictated by the laws of physics and chemistry"
They cannot create energy de novo or build ordered structures withouth the expenditure of free energy. Cells always come from preexisting cells. Example plasma membrane cells form from existing membrane.
What are the advantages of being multicellular.
Cells can take on specialized functions. They can exploit food sources. Example plants can reach soil and light.
List some evidence for a common ancestor.
Metabolic pathways are conserved. The components of nucleic acids and proteins are the same.
What is the advantage of condensation reactions.
They are readily reversible by hydrolysis which is energetically favorable.
How many electrons can be accommodated in the 1,2,3 electron shells.
2,8,8
Write the chemical formula for a peptide bond formation and hydrolysis
page A:5
T/F: Lipid bilayers are macromolecules that are made up of mostly phospholipid subunits.
False: the forces between subunits are non-covalent so they are not macromolecules.
What is the formula for determining how many different molecules can be made from amino acids.
20^n where n is the number of amino acids in the sequence.
Define amphipathic
Amphipathic means that the molecule has a hydrophobic region and a hydrophillic region. It would form balls in the water or a film on the surface.
Describe: nucleic acid, nucleotide, nucleoside.
A nucleic acid is a string of nucleotides. A nucleotide is a phosphate, a five-carbon sugar, and a nitrogenous base. A nucleoside is just the sugar and the base.
Describe the nucleotides.
Adenine is a purine with two rings that bonds with the pyramidine Thymine by forming two hydrogen bonds. Cytosine is a pyramidine that forms three hydrogen bonds with Guanine, a purine.
light energy + CO2 + H2O -> sugars + O2 + heat energy, would this reaction be catalyzed by a single enzyme. why is heat generated.
This is the bottom line of a lot of other reactions that require many different enzymes. The second law says that when order is created, heat energy must be released.
What is the difference between ΔG° and ΔG
ΔG° is constant, ΔG is a affected by temp., pressure and [].
Discuss phosphorylation and the binding of a nucleotide to protein.
An advantage of nucleotide binding is that occurs very quickly. An advantage of phosphorylation is that it requires only one amino acid residue to bind rather than a specific binding site.
T/F catalysis by some enzymes involve the formation of covalent bonds between a side chain and a substrate
True
T/F the specificity of an antibody is contained only in the loops of the light chain domain.
False. light and heavy chains
T/F affinity chromatography separates molecules according to their intrinsic charge
False. is separates them according to their interaction with specific ligands
How is the 5' cap formed and why?
Phosphohydrolase removes the terminal phosphate group. Guanylyl transferase adds guanine residue in reverse orientation with 5'-5' linkage. Methyl groups added to guanine and nascent rna. It is called the methylguanosine cap and it keeps exonuclease from chewing the ends, aids in transportation out of the nucleus, plays an important role in translation.
Name 3 differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic mRNA.
Eukaryotes have 5' cap, poly-a tail, and introns.
RNA polymerase II creates what?
mRNA and most snRNAs
Draw out splicesosome complex
U2AF bind and BBP bind to the A site. U1 binds downstream, U2 binds at the A site. U4/U6 U5 form spliceosome which is snRNAs and proteins.
Draw out mRNA export
Nuclear transport receptor binds to the middle, poly-a-binding protein binds to the end. Exits through the nuclear pore complex. Proteins return to nucleus. 5' cap exchanged for initiation factor.
Conditions for standarized G
1 atm, 25 degrees C, 1 M reactants, 55.6 M water, 7 pH
Examples of activated carriers
ATP, NADH, FADH2, NADPH (plants)
Which is energetically favorable, condensation or hydrolysis
Hydrolysis because it creates disorder
What makes the a-helix
N-H forms hydrogen bond at 4th C-O. This makes 3.6 amino acids per turn. Anything different is not alpha.
Differences in DNA replication between prokaryotes and eukaryotes
Prokaryotes
-circular DNA
-one origin
-no telomeres
Eukaryotes
-linear DNA
-multiple orgins
-Telomeres
Four types of DNA repair
Mismatch repair, double strand break repair, nucleotide excision repair, base excision repair