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135 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Extra Cellular Matrix
-ECM Proteins on basement membrane & around fibroblast cells
-Provides protection, maintains shape, guides cells
-19 types
-made up of 3 proteins (each a hydrophobic alpha helix)
-braided = high tensile strength (found in bones and ligaments)
-1/3 of AA that make it up are proline or hydroxyproline
Collagen Fiber
made up of several braided rows of collagen
-Protein backbone w/ disaccharide branches
-Disaccharides: Chondroitin Sulfate, Keratin Sulfate, Hyaluronic Acid
-called GAG's -> alternating disaccharides
-Homo Dimer (2 identical proteins)
-linked by intermolecular disulfide bridges
-Guide Cells
-Guide Cells (lay down road to follow)
-Found in Dermis (skin springs back after pulled)
-Elastin stretches but is still held together by disulfide bridges
have huge ECM, mostly made of collagen
All Proteins Synthesized
-in RER->Golgi (o-linked glycolysis)->Plasma Membrane in vesicle->exocytosed to outside
Neural Crest Cells Moving
follow fibronectin pathways
Primordial Germ Cells (PGC) in yolk sac
-reproductive cells move to gonads in embryo
-follow on top of laminin pathways
Erythroid Cells
-early blood cells
-need to get to liver & bone marrow
-follow on top of laminin pathways
Lymphoid Cells
-Cells of the immune system
-Bone marrow, spleen, lymph nodes, and thymus
-follow on top of laminin pathways
-L: shortest
-E: middle
-P: longest
-N-terminus in cytoplasm; alpha helix through PM; ECM
-Lectin-like domain on end (like to stick to sugars)
-stick to glycoproteins from other PM
-Immunoglobin Cell Adhesion Molecule (Immunoglobin Super Family)
-Change by random mutation and take on new functions
-Dimers Overlap
-glycoproteins that mediate Ca2+ cell-cell adhesion and transmit signals from the ECM to cytoplasm
-alpha & beta chains
Blood Vessel Endothelial Cells
have adhesion molecules on them
Adhesion Proteins
made in ER & brought to PM in vesicles
Gap Junction
-Sites between animal cells that are specialized for intercellular communication
-PM's come close together & are spanned by very fine strand or pipes that allow passage of small molecules
Tight Junction
-Specialized contacts that occur at the very apical end of the junctional complex that forms between adjacent epithelial cells
-Adjoining membranes make contact at intermitten points where integral proteins of the two adjacent membranes meet.
-Disc shaped adhesive junction containing cadherins found in a variety of tissues where they are located basal to the adherin junctions
-Plaques on the inner surface of PM serve as anchors for intermediate filaments that extend into cytoplasm
Adherin Junctions
encircle each of the cells near its apical surface, binding that cell to its surrounding neighbors
-held together by calcium dependent linkages
Nucleus Characteristics
-Eukaryotes: Yes
-Prokaryotes & Mitochondria: No
Chromosome Characteristics
-Eukaryotes: Many
-Prokaryotes & Mitochondria: One
Shape of DNA Characteristics
-Eukaryotes: linear w/lots of protein
-Prokaryotes & Mitochondria: circular w/ little protein
Division Characteristics
-Eukaryotes: Mitosis
-Prokaryotes & Mitochondria: Fission
Organelle Characteristics
-Eukaryotes: Yes
-Prokaryotes & Mitochondria: No
Ribosome Size Characteristics
-Eukaryotes: 80s
-Prokaryotes & Mitochondria: 70s
rRNA Characteristics
-Eukaryotes: 28s, 18s
-Prokaryotes & Mitochondria: 23s, 16s
Porin Characteristics
-Eukaryotes: Yes
-Prokaryotes & Mitochondria: Yes
Muscle Cells
-have a high # of mitochondria per cell
-neurons & sperm also have a high # of mitochondria (ATP for movement)
-have no selectivity (just have to be small enough to fit through)
-regulation takes place in the PM
2 pyruvic acids, 2 ATP, 2 NADH
-ATP for work
-pyruvic acid-> high potential for energy
Ensymes in Krebs Cycle
8 -> 4 from nucleus, 4 from mitochondria
Protein Target Sequence
8-10 extra AA that act as shipping address for protein
No Target Sequence
goes to cytoplasm
Mitochondrial Location Signal (MLS)
goes to mitochondria
Nuclear Localization Signal (NLS)
goes to nucleus
RER Location Signal (RLS)
goes to RER
Peroxisome Location Signal(PLS)
goes to peroxisome
Direction ATP Synthase Spins
Porphyrin Ring
light absorbing "head" of molecule
Chlorophyll a
absorbs blue (430nm) & red (670nm)
Chlorophyll b
absorbs blue (470nm) & red (650 nm)
Antennae Pigment Molecules
catch photon and send signal inward through vibration which passes energy on until it reaches the reaction center (Mg2+ ion)
electrons reduce NADP+ ->
NADPH through
FD (faradoxin)
light energy knocks 2e- off of PS II which goes to a receptor and then through
Electron Transport Chain
How is e- replaced in PS II
light causes photolysis of H2O which replaces the e-
NADPH & ATP build up in the stroma
used to build carbohydrates through carbon fixation
Mitochondria Proton Pumps
-3 proton pumps
-Complexes I, III, & IV
Chloroplast Proton Pumps
-1 proton pump
-Cyt b6/f
Secreted Proteins
-Protein Hormones, Insulin, LH, FSH, GH
-Protein Growth Factors
ECM Proteins
-Collagen, Fibronectin
-Laminin, Proteoglycan
Integral Membrane Protein
-stays in membrane as an alpha helix
-Selectins, ICAM's, ETC
-Na+/K+ pump
-Glycophorin A
Transport of Vesicle
1)Coat Protein put on Vesicle
2)Protein Motor Delivers vesicle
3)Vesicle Tethered to membrane
4)Docking: v-snares & t-snares
5)Vesicle membrane fuses w/ target
breaks down material using hydrolysis; contains hydrolytic enzymes
brings in big molecules
brings in lots of small molecules
1)Microtubules (hollow)
2)Intermediate Filaments (solid)
3)Microfilaments (solid)
4)Protein Motors
-Hollow; 24nm diameter
Intermediate Filaments
-solid; 10nm diameter
1)Keratin (skin, nails)
2)Vimentin (liver celss)
3)Desmin (muscle)
4)Neurofilaments (neuron axons)
5)Lamins (inside nucleus)
7)Spectrin (RBC->strengthens RBD membrane)
8)Dystrophin (muscle cells-> reinforces muscle cells)
9)Nexin (cilia & flagella-> keeps it from bending too far)
-solid; 8nm diameter
-actin (globular actin to/from filamentous actin)
-myosin: II is most common in muscle cells
Protein Motors
1)Kinesin (+) moves toward + end
2)Dynein (-) moves toward - end
Intermediate Filament Assembly
1)Monomer (N->C)
2)Dimer: 2 monomers braided
3)Tetramer: Dimer align a little off center with alternating N->C then C->N
4)IF structure: tertamers organized into intermediate filament
1)Mitochondrial, Chloroplast, & Prokaryotic Ribosome size
2)Eukaryotic Ribosome size
1)Products of Glycolysis that enter mitochondria
2)Electrons from 2 NADH cross the two membranes via
1)2 pyruvates
In Krebs Cycle (TCA) the enzyme ______ catalyzes the conversion of Succinate to _______ and this enzyme is also part of the ETC
1)Succinyl-CoA synthase
2)Succinate Dehydrogenase
Two Krebs Cycles produce ______ and _______ that contain high energy electrons that pass onto the ETC
1)6 NADH
2)2 FADH2
When proteins are imported into a mitochondria they must first be unfolded in the cytosol by _____ and then refolded in the matrix by ______
The first step of the Calvin Cycle in chloroplasts involves the bonding of one carbon from CO2 to a molecule of _______ by the enzyme _________
2)RuBP carboxylase
N-linked glycosylation of a protein starts in the lumen of the RER. The barbohydrates are first assembled on a _______ molecule and then they are transferred to the R-Group of the AA _______ at the N-terminus of the protein
1)lipid carrier
Vesicles heading to the PM have ______ protein coating their outer surface and these vesicles also have ______ to trap them at the PM
Microtubules are composed of ________ heterodimers that are added to the growing end or the _______ (other designation) end of the tubule
1)alpha & beta tubulin
2)plus end
The sperm flagellum bend due to the protein motor called ______. The microtubules are prevented from continuously sliding past each other by ______ protein.
Mitochondria Cytoplasm
ETC (mitochondria)
in cristae of mitochondria
sperm entering egg
-only nucleus of sperm enters egg leaving mitochondria behind
-all mitochondria DNA comes from mother
Prep for Krebs (TCA) Cycle
-Pyruvate naturally flows from cytosol to mitochondria (higher concentration outside than in)
1)Enzyme->Pyruvate decarboxylase strips CO2 off
2)NAD+ reduces to NADH
3)Coenzyme A attatches to form Acetyl CoA (using enzyme transferase
1 Krebs Cycle Products
-2 NADH from Pre-Kreb's
-3 NADH from Kreb's w/ potential energy
-1 FADH2 w/ potential energy
-1 ATP can be used for work
(FADH2 < NADH in energy)
steps from 1 Glucose molecule
1 Glucose -> 2 Pyruvates ->
2 Kreb's Cycles -> [6 NADH, 2 FADH2, 2 ATP] -> with pre-Kreb's = [8 NADH, 2 FADH2, 2 ATP]
Some steps in Kreb's
Oxaloacetate -> Citrate -> Isocitrate -> a-Ketoglutarate
Glycerol Phosphate Shuttle
1) 2 NADH from Glycolysis cannot enter mitochondria
2) electrons transfered to Glycerol-3-phosphate
3) goes through porin & transfers electrons to FAD to form FADH2 (using glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase)
4) Total sum of what mitochondria has to work with = 8 NADH, 4 FADH2, 2 ATP -> from one glucose molecule)
pH of intermembrane space & matrix of mitochondria
intermembrane space: pH 4 (lots of protons -> acidic)
matrix: pH 8
Electron Transport Chain (mitochondria)
1)NADH transfers 2e- to Complex I (NADH dehydrogenase) which is then passed to FMN and Fe-S, then to Ubiquinone (UQ)
2)FADH2 transfers 2e- to Complex II (Succinate Dehydrogenase) to FAD to Fe-S, then to UQ.
3)UQ carries the electrons to Complex III where they are passed to Fe-S then onto Cytochrome C
4)Cyt C carries the electrons to Complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase)which eventually passes the electrons onto O2 molecules to create H2O
-Complex I brings 4 H+ into the intermembrane space
-Complex III brings 4 H+
-Complex IV brings 2 H+
5)Protons go through ATP synthase -> C rotates causing gamma to turn in bulb made of 3 alpha and 3 Beta subunits) Beta has active site -> Delta anchors bulb to membrane
hydrophobic protein (stays in membrane)
Total protons after ETC
104 Protons -> (4FADH2 x 6 H+) + (8 NADH x 10 H+)
-Protons cause ATP synthase to spin and drive endergonic reaction (ADP + P = ATP)
-3 H+ go through ATP synthase = 1 ATP) -> about 34 ATP total
C Ring
composed of 10-14 subunits
Binding Change Mechanism for ATP synthesis
1)open site takes in ADP + Pi, movement of proton through the membrane induces shift to loose conformation
2)movement of additional proton induces shift to tight conformation
3)tightly bound ADP + Pi spontaneously condense to form ATP
4)movement of proton through membrane shifts it back to open conformation allowing product to be released
ATP synthase experiment
1)alpha, beta, and gamma added to test tubes in 3:3:1 ratio
2)AA attaches alpha to slide coated with nickel
3)covalently linked actin filament to gamma
4)coated actin with fluorescent antibodies
5)ATP + H20 = ADP + Pi -> filament seen spinning backwards (counter clockwise)
Mitochondria Diseases
NARP (from mom & dad) & MELAS (mom) -> trouble making ATP causes muscle & neuron problems
Distribuition of ATP (mitochondria)
38 ATP -> 30 to host cell; 8 to mitochondria
Importing Proteins into mitochondria
1)Chaperone protein (Hsp 70) unfolds Protein using ATP energy
2)Unfolded Protein binds to receptor and is passed through both membranes (with 8-10 AA as shipping address)
3)Chaperone Proteins mHsp 70 & Hsp 60 fold protein using ATP
4)Targeting sequence in removed and hydrolyzed while the protein goes to Kreb's, ETC, etc.
flow of electrons in photosynthesis
1)H20 -> photolysis -> 2e- go to PS II
2)excited by light, 2e- move up to P680
3)go through ETC & back down to PS I, excited by light move up to P700
Non-cyclic flow of electrons in chloroplast
1) 2H20 donate electrons to PS II
2)PS II passes electrons to PQb & then to the Q cycle (PQH2 & PQ)
3)Electrons then transfered to Fe-S in Cytochrome b6/f
4)electrons transferred to PC (plastocyanin) in lumen
5)PC takes electrons to PS I which then passes them onto ferrodoxin (FD) and then onto 2 NADPH in the stroma
-Light excites both PS II & PS I
cyclic phosphorylation
1)Absorption of light by PS I excites an electron which is transferred to FD
2)FD -> cytochrome b6/f
3)cyt b6/f -> Plastocyanin (PC) and back to P700
4)during process, cyt b6/f moves protons in to create gradient used to make ATP
Summary for 6 Calvin Cycles
1) 6 cycles for 1 glucose molecule
2) CO2 & H2O needed or Calvin Cycle stops in their absence
18 ATP; 12 NADPH -> Glucose -> Glycolysis, TCA, ETC -> 38 ATP
(18 ATP to eventually get 38)
each named for structure -> nuclear membrane, golgi membrane, plasma membrane
Nucleus -> PM
PM -> Nucleus
Constitutive Secretory Pathway
happens all the time
Regulated Secretory Pathway
Only happens when something needs to be released
Pulse-Chase Autoradiography
1)incubate tissue for a brief period in radioactive AA (B-islet cells make H-insulin with h-leucine) then wash & transfer to medium containing unlabeled AA ->fix, section, photoemulsion
2)pulse: period radioactive AA are incorporated in protein
chase: period when tissue is exposed to unlabeled medium
3)The longer the chase, the further the radioactive proteins can be seen moving along
RER= 3 mins
Golgi= 20 mins
ECM= 120 mins
GFP tagging
1)Green Fluorescent Protein DNA fused to DNA encoding protein
2)Causes mRNA to be tagged with GFPmRNA and in turn causes protein to be tagged with the GFP
3)GFP allows the protein to be observed accumulating in the RER where it is made
4)GFP then observed moving onto the golgi, and then to PM
5)Using GFP, synthesis & secretory pathway of a protein can be viewed in a dish
Smooth ER
store Ca2+ and Enzymes (break down toxic compounds that enter it)
made in cytoplasm & RER
Synthesis of a membrane bound protein
1)ribosome & tRNA create a protein from mRNA starting with signal peptide
2)a SRP protein attaches to the signal peptide which connects to the SRP receptor while the ribosome sits on the translocon
3)SRP is released & signal peptide binds to the translocon
4)Protein then translocates through the translocon
5)BiP acts as a chaperone protein and refolds the protein using ATP
6)Then target sequence is cut off and hydrolyzed as the protein is in the ER lumen
7)If becoming and integral membrane protein, it has a stop-transfer sequence and COOH end is in Cytosol while NH3 is in ER lumen most of the time
Glycophorin A
through membrane one time & has sugar on it -> C-terminus faces cytoplasm; N-terminus faces lumen of RER
Static Model of Golgi
vesicles transport between golgi
Maturational Model of Golgi
cisternae move down while vesicles create new cis-golgi (has retrograde transport as well)
Coat Protein -> can use trypsin to determine where certain parts of protein are located
sophisticatedly coating for vesicles carrying dangerous cargo (such as digestive enzymes)
-moves material from the TGN to endosomes, lysosomes, and plant vacuoles
-also endocytosis brings in material to be coated with clathrin and moved to endosome and lysosome (mannose 6-phosphate receptors on PM)
move material retrograde from ERGIC and golgi back towards ER and from trans-Golgi back towards cis-Golgi
move vesicles from ER forward to the ERGIC and Golgi
mannose 6-phosphate
found on vesicles going to lysosomes
releases lysosomal enzymes to break through the egg (only situation in which enzymes are released into the body)
pigment granules
surround material if it is very toxic even after being broken down (stays in cell as garbage which builds up over time)
cell moving in response to a chemical
made in liver -> egg -> taken in by receptors (lysosomes slowly but constantly digest yolk)
Cytoskeletal Functions
1)Structure & support
2)Intracellular Transport
3)Motility & Contractility: walk across filaments
4)Spatial Organization: holds things in place
-not a static structure (constantly moving)
-made of alternating alpha & beta tubulin
-one row = protofilament (13)
-has a slow growing end (-) and fast growing end (+)
-polymerize & depolymerize on the (+) end
-MAP2 has hook to connect to other microtubules or actin
-kinesin walks towards positive end skipping only on alphas or betas
ATP goes through one foot and causes other foot to kick forward
-requires a lot of energy
-holds onto vesicle with arms
-has bigger feet than kinesin
-walks toward (-) end
-If on same protofilament, then they collide until on steps aside onto another protofilament
-Requires GTP to polymerize microtubule
-requires hydrolysis of GTP to depolymerize
-Dynein moves chromatid toward (-) end during anaphase)
-Negative end always faces Golgi during interphase
-vesicle must be tethered before arms release it
Microtubule Organization Center: foundation for growth of microtubules (-) end always points toward MTOC
-part of mitotic spindle
Has outer A, B, C tubules (A is the only full one) with spindles going towards center
Pericentriolar Material (PCM)
surrounds centrosomes in MTOC
Protofilament Polymerization
circle of 13 gamma tubulin laid down as foundation for growth of protofilaments on MTOC
has 9 outer doublets and 2 inner central tubules connected by radial spokes
-Dynein + ATP = Bend
Axoneme Movement
-center tubules rotate off center sending signals through radial spokes to outer tubules & dynein causing bending for movement
-Proton pump at base of cilia/flagella pumps protons in, through center microtubules (causing movement), and out at tip -> back to proton pump
-When one side contracts, the other is relaxed to get side to side movement
-hydrolysis brings it back to relaxed position
Actin Growth
adds onto (+) end and takes off from (-) end
-nucleus held in place by actin
-bends with ATP, and returns to original position after hydrolysis
-grabs towards (+) end of actin and pulls it toward (-) end
Myosin Va
Kinesin only walks on microtubules, then hands off vesicle to Myosin Va which only walks on actin to bring the vesicle to the PM for exocytosis