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61 Cards in this Set

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Lord De la Warr
An Englishman who came to America in 1610. He brought the Indians in the Jamestown area a declaration of war from the Virginia Company. This began the four year Anglo-Powhatan War. De la Warr brought in "Irish tactics" to use in battle with the Indians.
A native Indian of America, daughter of Chief Powhatan, who was one of the first to marry an Englishman, John Rolfe, and return to England with him; Pocahontas' brave actions in saving an Englishman paved the way for many positive English and Native relations.
Chief of the Powhatan Confederacy and father to Pocahontas. At the time of the English settlement of Jamestown in 1607, he was a friend to John Smith and John Rolfe. When Smith was captured by Indians, Powhatan left Smith's fate in the hands of his warriors. His daughter saved John Smith, and the Jamestown colony. Pochantas and John Rolfe were wed, and there was a time of peace between the Indians and English until Powhatan's death.
John Rolfe
Rolfe was an Englishman who became a colonist in the early settlement of Virginia. He is best known as the man who married the Native American, Pocahontas and took her to his homeland of England. Rolfe was also the savior of the Virginia colony by perfecting the tabbaco industry in North America. Rolfe died during one of many Indian attacks on the colony.
Lord Baltimore
1694- He was the founder of Maryland, a colony which offered religious freedom, and a refuge for the persecuted Roman Catholics.
Sir Walter Raleigh
An English adventurer and writer, who was prominent at the court of Queen Elizabeth I, and became an explorer of the Americas. In 1585, Raleigh sponsored the first English colony in America on Roanoke Island in present-day North Carolina. It failed and is known as " The Lost Colony."
Oliver Cromwell
Englishman; led the army to overthrough King Charles I and was successful in 1646. Cromwell ruled England in an almost democratic style untill his death. His uprising drew English attention away from Jamestown and the other American colonies.
James Oglethorpe
founder of Georgia in 1733; soldier, statesman , philanthropist. Started Georgia as a haven for people in debt because of his intrest in prison reform. Almost single-handedly kept Georgia afloat.
John Smith
John Smith took over the leadership role of the English Jamestown settlement in 1608. Most people in the settlement at the time were only there for personal gain and did not want to help strengthen the settlement. Smith therefore told the people, "people who do not work do not eat." His leadership saved the Jamestown settlement from collapsing.
the process of buying people (generally Africans) who come under the complete authority of their owners for life, and intended to be worked heavily; became prominent in Colonial times around the mid to late 1600's ( but also to a lesser degree, concerning natives during the early 1500's) because of the labor intensive nature of the crops being grown, and the desire for a profit; mainly used on southern plantations, but also a little bit in the north; brought Africans to America, who have now become an integral part of our culture
caused by the desire of land-owning lords to raise sheep instead of crops, lowering the needed workforce and unemploying thousands of poor former-farmers; the lords fenced off the their great quantities of land from the mid to late 1500's forcing many farmers out and into the cities, leading many of them to hire themselves as indentured servants for payment of passage into the New World, and therefore supporting many of the needs of the labor-thirsty plantation owners of the New World
House of Burgeses
The House of Burgeses was the first representative assembly in the New World. The London Company authorized the settlers to summon an assembly, known as the House of Burgeses. A momentous precedent was thus feebly established, for this assemblage was the first of many miniature parliaments to sprout form the soil of America.
Royal Charter
A document given to the founders of a colony by the monarch that allows for special priveledges and establishes a general relationship of one of three types: (1) Royal- direct rule of colony by monarch, (2) Corporate- Colony is run by a joint-stock company, (3) Proprietary- colony is under rule of someone chosen by the monarch. Royal Charters guarenteed that colonists would have "rights as all Englishmen"
"Slave Codes"
In 1661 a set of "codes" was made. It denied slaves basic fundamental rights, and gave their owners permission to treat them as they saw fit.
An owner and cultivator of a small farm.
a person who was granted charters of ownership by the king: proprietary colonies were Maryland, Pennsylvania and Delaware: proprietors founded colonies from 1634 until 1681:a famous proprietor is William Penn
The chief dwelling place of the Iroquois Indians; c. 1500s-1600s; longhouses served as a meeting place as well as the homes for many of the Native Americans. They also provided unity between tribes of Iroquois Confederacy.
A person who settles on land without titile or right: Early settlers in North Carolina became squatters when they put their small farms on the new land. They raised tobacco on the land that they claimed, and tobacco later became a major cash crop for North Carolina.
A system of inheritance in which the eldest son in a family received all of his father's land. The nobility remained powerful and owned land, while the 2nd and 3rd sons were forced to seek fortune elsewhere. Many of them turned to the New World for their financial purposes and individual wealth.
Indentured Servitude
Indentured servants were Englishmen who were outcasts of their country, would work in the Americas for a certain amount of time as servants.
starving time
The winter of 1609 to 1610 was known as the "starving time" to the colonists of Virginia. Only sixty members of the original four-hundred colonists survived. The rest died of starvation because they did not possess the skills that were necessary to obtain food in the new world.
Virginia Company
A joint-stock company: based in Virginia in 1607: founded to find gold and a water way to the Indies: comfirmed all Englishmen that they would have the same life in the New World, as they had in England, with the same rights: 3 of their ships transported the people that would found Jamestown in 1607.
Iroquois Confederacy
The joining of six sects of the Iroquoian family and of the Eastern Woodlands area. By the 1700s, the tribes in the confederacy were the Onondaga, Cayuga, Oneida, Mohawk, Seneca, and Tuscarors. By combining they were a stronger force against the colonists.
purpose of Virginia
Virginia was founded primarily for the purpose of profit by the joint-stock owned Virginia Company of London. It was also important in giving England territorial claims in America to match Spanish and French expansion, and to also give England markets and resources in the New World.
problems and failures of Virginia
Included trouble with Indians and a "starving time" in the winter of 1609 which the colony barely survived. Virginia also suffered from debt, a high death rate, fraudulent local officials, and more Indian trouble. The problems eventually made the Virginia Company go bankrupt.
headright system
System enacted first in Virginia then in Baltimore to attract people to the sparsely populated colonies. The system worked by granting large amount of land to anyone who brought over a certain amount of colonists. In Baltimore, anyone bringing five adults at their own expense would receive two thousand acres.
successes of Virginia
Virginia succeeded politically in terms of creating the House of Burgesses as a semi-democratic assembly and forcing governors to cooperate with the legislature. They did this through the power of the purse as governors did not control money, and therefore depended on the legislature for they salaries.
First Anglo-Powhatan War
declared by Lord De la Warr and ended in 1614 by peace settlement sealed by the marriage of Pocahontas to colonist John Rolfe
Second Anglo-Powhatan War
Began in 164 and ended in 1646 and effectively banished the Chesapeak Indians from their ancestral lands
John Calvin
John Calvin was responsible for founding calvinism, which was reformed catholicism. He writes about it in "Institutes of a Christian Religion" published in 1536. He believed God was all knowing and everyone was predestined for heaven or hell.
Anne Hutchinson
A religious dissenter whose ideas provoked an intense religious and political crisis in the Massachusetts Bay Colony between 1636 and 1638. She challenged the principles of Massachusett's religious and political system. Her ideas became known as the heresy of Antinomianism, a belief that Christians are not bound by moral law. She was latter expelled, with her family and followers, and went and settled at present day Rhode Island
Roger Williams
He was banished from the Massachussetts Bay Colony for challenging Puritan ideas. He later established Rhode Island and helped it to foster religious toleration.
Henry Hudson
Discovered what today is known as the Hudson River. Sailed for the Dutch even though he was originally from England. He was looking for a northwest passage through North America.
William Bradford
A pilgrim that lived in a north colony called Plymouth Rock in 1620. He was chosen governor 30 times. He also conducted experiments of living in the wilderness and wrote about them; well known for "Of Plymouth Plantation."
Peter Stuyvesant
A Dutch General; He led a small military expedition in 1664. He was known as "Father Wooden Leg". Lost the New Netherlands to the English. He was governor of New Netherlands
Thomas Hooker
1635; a Boston Puritan, brought a group of fellow Boston Puritans to newly founded Hartford, Conneticutt.
William Penn
English Quaker; "Holy Experiment"; persecuted because he was a Quaker; 1681 he got a grant to go over to the New World; area was Pennsylvania; "first American advertising man"; freedom of worship there
John Winthrop
John Winthrop immigrated from the Mass. Bay Colony in the 1630's to become the first governor and to led a religious experiment. He once said, "we shall be a city on a hill."
King Philip II
He was king of Spain during 1588. During this year he sent out his Spainish Armada against England. He lost the invasion of England. Philip II was also the leader against the Protestant Reformation.
John Cotton
John Cotton, a puritan who was a fiery early clergy educated at Cambridge University, emigrated to Massachusetts to avoid persecution by the church of England. He defended the government's duty to enforce religious rules. He preached and prayed up to six hours in a single day.
Sir Edmond Andros
Head of the Dominion of New England in 1686, militaristic, disliked by the colonists because of his affiliation with the Church of England, changed many colonial laws and traditions without the consent of the representatives, tried to flee America after England's Glorious Revolution, but was caught and shipped to England
The "elect"
John Calvin and the Purtains souls who have been destined for eternal bliss or eternal torment; since the beginning of time ; it was discussed by John Calvin in "Institutes of the Christian Religion"
Patroonship was vast Dutch fuedal estates fronting the Hudson River in the early 1600's. They were granted to promoters who agreed to settle fifty people on them.
Primary idea behind Calvinism; states that salvation or damnation are foreordained and unalterable; first put forth by John Calvin in 1531; was the core belief of the Puritans who settled New England in the seventeenth century.
colonial period; term used to describe indentured servants who had finished their terms of indenture and could live freely on their own land.
"visible saints"
A religious belief developed by John Calvin held that a certain number of people were predestined to go to heaven by God. This belief in the elect, or "visible saints," figured a major part in the doctrine of the Puritans who settled in New England during the 1600's.
A binding agreement made by the Puritans whose doctrine said the whole purpose of the government was to enforce God's laws. This applied to believers and non-believers.
Protestant Reformation
The Protestant Revolution was a religious revolution, during the 16th century. It ended the supremacy of the Catholic Church and resulted in the establishment of the Protestant Churches. Martin Luther and John Calvin were influenial in the Protestant Revolution.
Separatists; worried by "Dutchification" of their children they left Holland on the Mayflower in 1620; they landed in Massachetts; they proved that people could live in the new world
New England Confederation
New England Confederation was a Union of four colonies consisting of the two Massachusetts colonies (The Bay colony and Plymouth colony) and the two Connecticut colonies (New Haven and scattered valley settlements) in 1643. The purpose of the confederation was to defend against enemies such as the Indians, French, Dutch, and prevent intercolonial problems that effected all four colonies.
Set of beliefs that the Puritans followed. In the 1500's John Calvin, the founder of Calvinism, preached virtues of simple worship, strict morals, pre-destination and hard work. This resulted in Calvinist followers wanting to practice religion, and it brought about wars between Huegenots (French Calvinists) and Catholics, that tore the French kingdom apart.
Massachusetts Bay Colony
One of the first settlements in New England; established in 1630 and became a major Puritan colony. Became the state of Massachussetts, originally where Boston is located. It was a major trading center, and absorbed the Plymouth community
Dominion of New England
In 1686, New England, in conjunction with New York and New Jersey, consolidated under the royal authority -- James II. Charters and self rule were revoked, and the king enforced mercantile laws. The new setup also made for more efficient administration of English Navigation Laws, as well as a better defense system. The Dominion ended in 1688 when James II was removed from the throne.
Navigation Laws
In the 1660's England restricted the colonies;They couldn't trade with other countries.The colonies were only allowed to trade with England.
The Puritans
They were a group of religious reformists who wanted to "purify" the Anglican Church. Their ideas started with John Calvin in the 16th century and they first began to leave England in 1608. Later voyages came in 1620 with the Pilgrims and in 1629, which was the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
General Court
a Puritan representative assembly elected by the freemen; they assisted the governor; this was the early form of Puritan democracy in the 1600's
Pilgrims that started out in Holland in the 1620's who traveled over the Atlantic Ocean on the Mayflower. These were the purest, most extreme Pilgrims existing, claiming that they were too strong to be discouraged by minor problems as others were.
Members of the Religious Society of Friends; most know them as the Quakers. They believe in equailty of all peoples and resist the military. They also believe that the religious authority is the decision of the individual (no outside influence.) Settled in Pennsylvania.
Protestant ethic
mid 1600's; a commitment made by the Puritans in which they seriously dwelled on working and persuing worldly affairs.
Mayflower Compact
1620- A contract made by the voyagers on the Mayflower agreeing that they would form a simple government where majority ruled.
Fundamental Orders
In 1639 the Connecticut River colony settlers had an open meeting and they established a constitution called the Fundamental Orders. It made a Democratic government. It was the first constitution in the colonies and was a beginning for the other states' charters and constitutions.