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342 Cards in this Set

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Roanoke
Lost Colony. Founded by Sir Walter Raleigh in 1587 in current North Carolina, disappeared within three years.
Virginia Company
A joint-stock company: based in Virginia in 1607, founded to find gold and a water way to the Indies. Confirmed all Englishmen that they would have the same life in the New World, as they had in England, with the same rights. 3 of their ships transported the people that would found Jamestown in 1607.
Jamestown
Where the colonists from the Virgina Company first settled in 1606. Marks spot of first American colonization. Almost failed due to starvation, but ultimately thrived.
"Starving time"
The winter of 1609 to 1610 was known as the "starving time" to the colonists of Virginia. Only sixty members of the original four-hundred colonists survived. The rest died of starvation because they did not possess the skills that were necessary to obtain food in the new world.
House of Burgesses
The House of Burgeses was the first representative assembly in the New World. The London Company authorized the settlers to summon an assembly, known as the House of Burgeses. A momentous precedent was thus feebly established, for this assemblage was the first of many miniature parliaments to sprout form the soil of America.
Mayflower Compact
Created a legal authority and an assembly in Plymouth (first steps towards democracy). Asserted that government's power derived from people, not God.
Powhatan Confederacy
A group of local tribes who taught the English how to grow cropts. Saved Englishmen, and when princess Pocahontas married John Rolfe, tensions were eased.
Royal Colony
Colony governed directly by King. Almost all colonies became royal at some point. (Virginia, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, North Carolina, New York, New Jersey, Carolina, Georgia)
Self Governing Colony
Colony allowed to self-govern. (Connecticut, Rhode Island)
Joint-Stock Company
A group of investors who bought the right to establish New World plantations from the King.
Proprietary Colony
Colony with chartered ownership given to a proprietor. (Maryland, Pennsylvania and Delaware)
Puritans
A group of religious reformists who wanted to "purify" the Anglican Church based on the ideas of John Calvin. Notable voyages were in 1620 (Pilgrims) and 1629 (Massachusetts Bay Colony).
Massachusetts Bay Colony
One of the first settlements in New England. Established in 1629 and led under John Winthrop, it became a major Puritan colony.It was a major trading center, and absorbed the Plymouth community
Great Migration
Flood of Puritan immigants from Europe to the Massachusetts Bay Colony from 1629-42.
Plymouth Bay Colony
Founded by the Pilgrims in 1620. They were headed towards Virginia, but their ship was blown off course.
Maryland
Declared by Lord Baltimore as haven of religious tolerance for all Christians. Became first major Catholic enclave in the New World.
Connecticut
Founded by Thomas Hooker who brought groups of Puritans to new colony.
Rhode Island
Established by Roger Williams, it practiced religious tolerance and did require voters to be church members.
Pequot War
After Pequots attacked Puritan settlement, killing nine, the colonists responded by burning Pequot village, killing 400.
Anne Hutchinson
A religious dissenter who challenged the principles of Massachusett's religious and political system by claiming she had a special covenant with God. Her ideas became known as the heresy of Antinomianism, a belief that Christians are not bound by moral law. She was latter banned from the count
Roger Williams
He was banished from the Massachussetts Bay Colony for challenging Puritan ideas (he advocated separation of church and state). He later established Rhode Island and helped it to foster religious toleration.
Maryland Toleration Act
A legal document that allowed all Christian religions in Maryland. Protestants invaded the Catholics in 1649 around Maryland, and this protected the Catholics from Protestant rage of sharing the land. Maryland became the #1 colony to shelter Catholics in the New World.
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
In 1639 the Connecticut River colony settlers had an open meeting and they established a constitution called the Fundamental Orders. It made a Democratic government. It was the firdst constitution in the colonies and was a beginning for the other states' charters and constitutions.
New Amsterdam, New York
Peter Stuyvestant and Dutch had settled New York area, but King James granted land to brother. Dutch gave up area without a fight, but had an influence on area for many years.
New Jersey
Colony granted to friends of King.
Carolina
Colony (ultimately split in two) used as outpost for West Indies trade. Where American slavery is said to have started.
King Philip's War
Bloodiest English-Native American conflict of the time. Leader of the Pokanokets, Metacomet, led attacks on several expanding colonist settlements. He formed an alliance with other tribes, but soon they were defeated due to lack of supplies.
Bacon's Rebellion
In 1676, Bacon, a young planter led a rebellion against people who were friendly to the Indians. In the process he torched Jamestown, Virginia and was murdered by Indians.
Pennsylvania
Established by William Penn, it was a colony founded for the Quakers and practiced religous toleration and civil liberties.
Dominion of New England
In 1686, New England, in conjunction with New York and New Jersey, consolidated under the royal authority -- James II. Charters and self rule were revoked, and the king enforced mercantile laws. The new setup also made for more efficient administration of English Navigation Laws, as well as a better defense system. The Dominion ended in 1688 when James II was removed from the throne.
Glorious Revolution of England
Bloodless revolution in England that overthrew King James II and replaced him with William and Mary. Ended Dominion of England, Massachusetts became a royal colony, and it inspired the Americans for their own revolution.
Delaware
Established by Lord de la Warr. Had a strong Swedish influence.
Georgia
Founded by James Oglethorpe for those burdened by debt. The English used the colony as a buffer between the propserpous Carolinas and the French and Spaniards.
Harvard College
Founded in 1636, it was the first college in the colonies.
Halfway Covenant
In 1662, the Halfway Covenant allowed partial church membership rights to persons not yet converted into the Puritan church. It lessened the difference between the "elect" members of the church from the regular members. Women soon made up a larger portion of Puritan congregations.
Salem witchcraft trials
In the summer of 1692, a mass hysteria took place in which many colonists (primarily women) were convicted and executed for being witches. Because they were experiencing feelings of powerlessness and insecurity, many Puritans found in witchcraft an explanation for the disorder and change around them.
Scotish Irish
A group of Scots who fled to escape poverty and religious oppression. They first relocated to Ireland and then to America in the 1700s. They left their mark on the backcountry of Virginia, the Carolinas, and Georgia. These areas are home to many Presbyterian churches established by the Scots-Irish. Many people in these areas are still very independent like their ancestors.
Yale College
Founded in 1701, it was the third college of the colonies.
Great Awakening
The Great Awakening was a religious revival held in the 1730's and 1740's to modivate the colonial America. Modivational speakers such as Jonathan Edwards and George Whitefield helped to bring Americans together.
College of William and Mary
Founded in 1693, it was the first college of the Jamestown area.
Peter Zenger Case
John Peter Zenger, a newspaper printer, protested the royal governor in 1734-35. He was put on trial for this "act of treason." The jury went against the royal governor and ruled Zenger innocent. This set the standards for democracy and, most importantly, for the freedom of the press.
Regulators Uprising
A movement during the 1760's by western North Carolinians, mainly Scots-Irish, that resented the way that the Eastern part of the state dominated political affairs. They believed that the tax money was being unevenly distributed. Many of its members joined the American Revolutionists.
Stono Rebellion
One of the first and most successful slave rebellions in which twenty slaves met and killed many colonists before fleeing and being captured.
King William's War
War against French and Natiive Americans on Canadian Border (1689-97)
Queen Anne's War
British vs. French (1702-13)
"Salutary neglect"
Period in which English officials loosely enforced, if even at all, the Nagivation Laws.
King George's War
War between British and Spaniards on American soil.
Albany Congress/Plan of Union
A conference in the summer of 1754. It advocated a union of the British colonies for their security and defense against French. Held by the British Board of Trade to help cement the loyalty of the Iroquois League. After receiving presents, provisions and promises of Redress of grievances. 150 representatives if tribes withdrew without committing themselves to the British cause.
Navigation Laws
A series of laws passed by British to control colonial trade. They ensured that colonists trade on English ships and required many goods to be traded only with England and its colonies. Used to propel theory of mercantalism.
French and Indian War
A war fought by French and English on American soil over control of the Ohio River Valley-- English defeated French in 1763. Historical significance - established England as number one world power and began to gradually change attitudes of the colonists toward England for the worse.
George III
King George the third was the king of England in the 1770's.Though he was a good man he was not a good ruler. He lost all of the 13 American colonies and caused America to start to gain its freedom.
Treaty of Paris (1763)
Ended French and Indian War
British Proclamation of 1763
English law enacted after French and Indian War which forbade the colonists from settling beyond the Appalachian Mountains. It helped spark the American revolution.
Sugar and Currency Acts
Sugar - Established a number of new duties and contained provisions aimed at deterring molasses smugglers. It was explicity designed to generate revenue for the British government. (1764)

Currency - Forbade Americans from producing their own paper currency. (1764)
Stamp and Quartering Acts
Stamp - Required colonists to pay for a stamp to go on many documents essential to their lives. Affected many intellectuals in particular, and disregarded taxation-with-representation. (1765)

Quartering - Forced colonists to pay a tax to house and feed British soldiers, or house and feed them themselves. (1765)
Stamp Act and Stamp Act Congress
Met in New York City with delegates from nine colonies in 1765 to discuss grievances. Had little effect at the time but was big step towards colonial unity. Helped repeal act in 1766.
Sons of Liberty
An organization established in 1765, these members (usually in the middle or upper class) resisted the Stamp Act of 765. Even though the Stamp Act was repealed in 1766, the Sons of Liberty combined with the Daughters of Liberty remained active in resistance movements.
Declaratory Act
Passed with repeal of Stamp Act, and stated that Parliament had the right "to bind" the colonies "in all cases whatsoever." It stopped the violence against Stamp Act and restarted trade with England. (1766)
Townshend Acts
These acts put a light import duty on such things as glass, lead, paper, and tea. The acts met slight protest from the colonists, who found ways around the taxes such as buying smuggled tea. Due to its minute profits, the Townshend Acts were repealed in 1770, except for the tax on tea. The tax on tea was kept to keep alive the principle of Parliamentary taxation. (1767)
Boston Massacre
British soliders fired on crowd provking them, killing five. Propaganda campaign ensued leading colonists to believe bystanders were innocent, tensions mounted.
Association
A document produced by the Continental Congress in 1775 that called for a complete boycott of British goods.
Committees of Correspondence
Samuel Adams started the first committee in Boston in 1772 to spread propaganda and secret information by way of letters. They were used to sustain opposition to British policy. The committees were extremely effective and a few years later almost every colony had one.
Tea Act
Only duty not repealed from Townshend Acts. Forced colonists to buy tea at high prices due to monopolies.
Boston Tea Party
A "revolt" on the Tea Act passed by Parliament; Sons of Liberty dressed up like Indians raided English ships in Boston Harbor. They dumped thousands of pounds of tea into the harbor. Led to Coercive Acts. (1773)
Intolerable (Coercive) Acts
Passed following Boston Tea Party. Considered unfair because they were designed to chastise Boston in particular, yet effected all the colonies by the Boston Port Act which closed Boston Harbor until damages were paid. (1774)
First Continental Congress
A convention of all colonies (except Georgia) that met for seven weeks in Philadelphia in 1774. It was the American's response to the Intolerable Acts and considered ways of redressing colonial grievances. John Adams and the rest wrote a Declaration of Rights and appeals to the British. It created the Association a pathway to revolution.
Second Continental Congress
Met just after first battles of war. Established Continental Army, printed money, created government offices, and chose George Washington to lead army.
Valley Forge
Where Washington and his troops almost froze and starved to death in the harsh winter, but overcame struggles to take victory of war.
Franco-American Alliance
Negotiated by Ben Franklin, brought French into war on Americans' side. Helped determine outcome of war.
Thomas Paine and "Common Sense"
Thomas Paine was a passionate and persuasive writer who published the bestseller, "Common Sense" in 1776. Paine had the radical idea that the colonies should set up America as an independent, democratic, republic away from England. Over 120,000 copies of his book were sold and this helped spark the colonists rebellion later that year.
Declaration of Independence
Formally approved by the Congress on July 4, 1776. Written by Thomas Jefferson, it declared the colonies no longer a part of England. It sharply separated Loyalists from Patriots and helped to start the American Revolution by allowing England to hear of the colonists disagreements with British authority.
Treaty of Paris (1782)
The British recognized the independence of the United States. It granted boundaries, which stretched from the Mississippi on the west, to the Great Lakes on the north, and to Spanish Florida on the south. The Yankees retained a share of Newfoundland.
Articles of Confederation
The first "constitution" governing the Untied States after the Revolution. It was ratified in 1781 and it provided for a "firm league of friendship" between states. The legislative branch (Congress) had no power to regulate commerce or forcibly collect taxes and there was no national executive or judicial branch. It failed, but was an important stepping-stone towards the present constitution because without it the states would never have consented to the Constitution.
Land Ordinance of 1785
A red letter law which stated that disputed land the Old Northwest was to be equally divided into townships and sold for federal income. Promoted education and ended confusing legal disagreements over land.
Land Ordinance of 1787
Once a territory reached 60,000 citizens, it could become a state.
Shay's Rebellion
Impoverished backcountry farmers, many of them Revolutionary war veterans, were losing their farms through mortgage foreclosures and tax delinquencies and revolted under Daniel Shays. The movement was smashed and Shays was condemned to death then later pardoned. The outburst struck fear in the hearts of the propertied class. The rebellion exposed the need for a stronger central government.
Constitutional Convention of 1787
Four month convention between state delegates to modify US government. Debated between New Jersey Plan (modifications) and Virginia Plan (new government). Ultimately drafted the Constitution
Federalist Papers
A series of articles written in New York newspapers as a source of propaganda for a stronger central government. The articles, written by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison, were a way for the writers to express their belief that it is better to have a stronger central government. The papers turned out to be a penetrating commentary written on the Constitution.
Judiciary Act of 1789
It organized the Supreme Court, originally with five justices and a chief justice along with several federal district and circuit courts. It also created the attorney general's office. This Act created the judiciary branch of the U.S. government and thus helped to shape the future of this country.
Funding at Par
Hamilton's plan to call in all outstanding securities and issue new bonds of the same face value in their place, and to establish an untouchable sinking fund to assure payment of the interest and principal of the new bonds.
Assumption
Hamilton's idea that the federal government would assume all state debts.
First Bank of the United States
Caused debate between Federalists and Anti-Federalists. Hamilton felt that it was in the implied powers of the Constitution that the government could establish the bank to strengthen the economy, but Jefferson felt that while it would be helpful, the government did not have the power to create it. Washington ultimately sided with Hamilton.
Bill of Rights
The first ten amendments of the Constitution, the bill of rights was added in 1791 when it was addopted by the necessary number of states. It garuntees such civil liberties as freedom of speech, free press, and freedom of religon. Written by James Madison.
Washinton's Neutrality Proclamation
Established isolationist policy, proclaimed government's official neutrality in widening European conflicts also warned American citizens about intervening on either side of conflict. (1793)
Citizen Genet
He was a represenative of the French Republic who came to America in order to recruit Americans to help fight in the French Revolution.
Jay's Treaty
Meant to negotiate treaty concerning free trade and Britain’s presence in the US. The British agreed that they would evacuate the chain of posts on U.S. soil and pay damages for recent seizures of American ships, but would not promise to leave American ships alone in the future, and still demanded payment of pre-war debts. Many Americans were angered by this.
Great Compromise
It resolved between the small and large states that there would be representation by population in the House of Representatives, and equal representation would exist in the Senate (2 senators each). All tax bills and revenues would originate in the House. This compromise combined the needs of both large and small states and formed a fair and sensible resolution to their problems. (1787)
Whiskey Rebellion
A small rebellion against the use of an excise tax on an "economic medium of exchange." Washington crushed the rebellion with excessive force, proving the strength of the national governments power in its military, but was condemned for using a "sledge hammer to crush a gnat." (1794)
Pinckney's Treaty
Gave America what they demanded from the Spanish: free navigation of the Mississippi, large area of north Florida. (Helped America to have unexpected diplomatic sucess) (1795)
Washington's Farewell Address
Warned US to "steer clear of permanent alliances with any portion of the foreign world."
John Adams
A Federalist who became President by three votes in 1796. Known for his quarrel with France, XYZ Affair, Quais War, and the Convention of 1800. Later though he was also known for his belated push for peace w/ France in 1800. Regarding his personality he was a "respectful irritation".
XYZ Affair
Incident in which French officials demanded a bribe to speak to American diplomats. Published in newspapers (but French names were replaced with X, Y, and Z) and completely reversed American sentiment towards France.
Alien and Sedition Acts
Among other things, raised the residency requirement and prohibited anybody from speaking out against the government. It was intended to silence critics of the Federalist party, but contributed to the party's decline.
Virginia and Kentucky Resolves
Put into practice in 1798 by Jefferson and James Madison, these resolutions were secretly made to get the rights back taken away by the Alien and Sedition Acts. They also brought about the later compact theory which gave the states more power than the federal government, also known as nullification.
Undeclared naval war with France
The French were infuriated with the US after Jay's Treaty, so began to attack American ships at sea.
Adam's "midnight judges"
A group of judges that was appointed by John Adams the night before he left office. He appointed them to go to the federal courts to have a long term federalist influence, because judges serve for life instead of limited terms
Marbury v. Madison
William Marbury (one of Adams' midnight appointments), sued Secretary of State Madison who tried to take away position. Though Chief Justice Marshall sympathized with Marbury, he ruled against him, establishing the idea of judicial review (Supreme Court gets to decide on constitutionality of federal laws).
John Marshall
Chief of Justice that established judicial review and laid the groundwork for a broad interpretation of the Constitution.
Louisiana Purchase
Although Jefferson was only aiming to get New Orleans, diplomats negotiated with Napolean to recieve the entire Louisiana territory for fairly cheap, doubling the size of the US.
Burr-Hamilton duel
When Hamilton lobbied for Jefferson when Jefferson and Burr were up for the presidency, Burr became so angered he challenged Hamilton to a duel. Hamilton accepted, and lost.
"Revolution of 1800"
What Jefferson considered his election to be because
British Orders in Council
A law passed by the English while fighting the French in 1793. The British closed off all port vessels that France went through so they couldn’t get supplies, but American ships were seized also and Americans were impressed into the British navy, leading to the War of 1812.
Chesapeake Affair
The Chesapeake was boarded by the British, who forced the crew to sail on British ships. This is one of the more famous cases of impressment, and led to the War of 1812.
Embargo Act
A law passed by Congress forbidding all exportation of goods from the United States. Jefferson hoped to weaken the warring France and Britain by shutting off trade, but the act ended up hurting our economy more than theirs. It helped to revive the Federalists and caused New England's industry to grow. It was repealed in 1807 and eventually led to the War of 1812.
Nonintercourse Act, Force Act, Macon's Bill #2
Replaced Embargo Act, if either Britian or France repealed their restrictions on US trade, US would embargo other.
Harrison at Tippecanoe Creek
Harrison defeat Tecumseh at Battle of Tippecanoe. (1811)
James Madison
The author of the Constitution and the Bill of Rights, Madison was also the father of the Federalist party and the fourth President of the United States. He was President during the war of 1812 and was also Vice-President under Jefferson. He was a great statesman but was not a strong president.
British burn Washington DC
British entered capital and set fire to many public buildings such as the Capital and the White House
"Star-Spangled Banner"
National Anthem, written by Frances Scott Key during war of 1812.
Treaty of Ghent
An agreement signed by the Americans and the British (who were more concerned with European affairs) that agreed to stop fighting which led to the end of the War of 1812.
Hartford Convention
A secret convention of Federalists held in Hartford to discuss their party status and War of 1812. When they wrote their “resolutions” and considered secession, many viewed them as traitors, which ultimately led to the downfall of their party. (1814)
Battle of New Orleans
Andrew Jackson defeated overconfident British (1815)
James Monroe
The President of the United States of America during the Era of Good Feelings. He delivered a issued the Monroe Doctrine and helped establish America as a world power.
Rush-Bagot Agreement
Severely limited British and American naval guard on Great Lakes. (1817)
Fulton's steamboat
Steamboat faster than any other form of transportation at the time, revolutionized industry.
Cumberland (National) Road
Highway that stretched across nation, providing much aid to Westerners. (1811)
Protective Tariff
Imposed 8% on the value of dutiable imports. Passed to increase revenue and protect small industries. Due in part to Hamilton's plan.
Second Bank of the US
Established as part of the American System to save the welfare of the economy after the War of 1812. Forced state banks to call in their loans, which led to foreclosures and the Panic of 1819.
Erie Canal
Linked the Great Lakes region to New York (and European shipping routes), opened up new era of industry for farmers. (1825)
"Era of Good Feelings"
The years of Monroe's presidency marked by political harmony and upsurge of nationalism. However, underneath their were conflicts over slavery and sectionalism.
Andrew Jackson and Florida
Jackson took military control of Spanish Florida, which encouraged the treaty with Spain 1819.
Adams-Onis Treaty
The negotiated sale of Spain's territories in eastern and western Florida to the U. S. for $5 million.
McCulloch v. Maryland
Ruled state has no right to control an agency of the federal government.
Dartmouth College v. Woodward
Safeguards businesses from domination by state governments.
Tallmadge Amendment
No more slaves would be brought into Missouri, general emancipation of children born to slave parents in Missouri (defeated).
Missouri Compromise
Admitted Missouri as slave state, Maine as free state, southern border of Missouri was northernmost point slavery was allowed. Stalled the Civil War.
Cohens v. Virginia
Supreme Court has right to review the decisions of all state supreme courts.
American System
Proposed by Henry Clay, it created a protective tariff to American Markets. It used this tariff to build road and canal for better transportation to start a cycle to trading for US market.
Monroe Doctrine
Noncolonization (prohibited Europeans from colonizing land in North America) and nonintervention (warned Europeans to stay out of Northern American affairs)
Gibbons v. Ogden
Congress alone is allowed to control interstate commerce.
John Quincy Adams
The sixth president of the United States who could never gain the support of the Americans because he was a minority president. He was in favor of funding national research, but accomplished little.
Tariff of Abominations
An extremely high tariff that Jacksonian Democrats tried to get Adams to veto. Greatly angered Southerners, who were heavily reliant on manufacturing, were angered by what they considered to be the unfair tariff. (1828)
South Carolina Exposition and Protest
A pamphlet published by the South Carolina legislature speaking against the "Tariff of Abominations." It proposed nullification of the tariff to prevent secession.
Andrew Jackson
Seventh president, Jackson believed that the people should rule. Represented ideals of West. and appealed to the common man. He believed in the strength of the Union and the supremacy of the federal government over the state government.
Maysville Road Veto
Jackson withheld funds from localized roads and vetoed a bill for improving the Maysville Road (local road connected to interstate). This was a great setback for the internal improvements of the American society.
Indian removal
Jackson fought for the relocation of Native Americans.
Peggy Eaton affair
Scandal that involved Jackson's Secretary of War Eaton and his wife, Peggy, the daughter of a boardinghouse keeper.
Cherokee Nation v. Georgia
Protected Native American rights to their lands
Anti-Masonic Party
Party that spoke against the famous secret society of the Masons, but was also considered to be very anti-Jackson. Followers often sought moral and religious reform.
Spoils System
A system that gave the public offices to the political supporters of the candidate.
Compromise Tariff
Promised to gradually reduce the Tariff of 1832 by 10% over a period of eight years.
Force Bill
Authorized the president to use the army and navy if necessary to collect federal tariff duties.
Whig Party
Party based solely on opposition to Democrats' politics. Favored activism and were often religious.
Martin Van Buren
Supported by Jackson and became his successor, but did little as president and is often forgotten.
"Trail of Tears"
Native Americans were forced to march hundreds of miles to new lands, resulting in the death of thousands.
Independent Treasury Act
"Divorced" US government from banking. Passed in 1840 but was repealed by Whigs (who wanted to revive Bank of US) the next year.
William Henry Harrison
Mexican War hero, first Whig president, but died a month into presidency.
Nat Turner
Led a slave insurrection after having a vison that resulted in the death of sixty whites (and later 200 blacks).
Lowell System
Guaranteed employees housing in respectable, chaperoned boardinghouses, cash wages, and participation in cultural and social events.
Commonwealth v. Hunt
Labor unions ruled not illegal conspiracies, that methods were honorable and peaceful
German and Irish immigration
Wave of German/Irish immigration in 1840s-50s that was met with wave of resentment due to competition for jobs. Irish especially, for Catholicism.
Clipper ships
Sleek ships that sacrificed cargo space for speed.
Transatlantic cable/telegraph
Cable from Newfoundland to Ireland to revolutionize international communication.
Perry/Japan
Perry pursuaded Japanese to sign treaty that opened up commerce and marked the beginning of a tumultuous relationship.
Reform movements
Movements supported by a group of people to change society for the better regarding moral, religious, and social issues.
Utopian communities
Communities seeking cooperation, communism ideals, and communitarianism.
Oneida
Group in NY that shockingly lived a communal life and shared everything, even marriages.
Brook Farm
A Massachusetts commune that wanted to created a perfect union between intellect and manual labor. It failed because nobody really wanted to work.
Women's Rights/Seneca Falls
Woman's Right Convention, prominent feminists read Declaration of Sentiments: "all men and women are created equal"
Shakers
"Universal Friends" - Promoted celibacy (died out unsurprisingly)
Temperance Union
Group that battled alcohol, felt it was responsible for all of society's ills.
American Antislavery Society
Group of abolitionists that promoted abolitionism, distributed anti-slavery propaganda.
Horace Mann/Public Education
Fought for better standards of tax-supported public education (better curriculum, trained teachers, longer school years).
Liberty Party
Antislavery party that won 16,000 votes in election of 1844, hurt Clay's chance at victory.
Mormon Church
After facing extreme hostility in the Midwest, Mormons moved to Utah and established their influential church there.
Emerson and Thoreau
Two transcendentalist authors. Emerson - Poet, philosopher, "The American Scholar." Thoreau - Poet, mystic, "Walden: Or Life in the Woods."
Elizabeth Blackwell
First female to graduate from medical college.
Texas secedes from Mexico
Texas seceded from Mexico, prompting the US to annex it. The Mexican American War was fought over this.
John Tyler
Took death after Harrison's death. Claimed to be a Whig, but followed the Democratic platform. Sparked Mexican-American war, was liked by nobody.
Texas enters Union
Texas officially entered Union as slave state in 1848 after Mexican American War with Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.
Slidell Mission
John Slidell was sent to Mexico City in 1845 to offer a $25 million maximum for California and other territory. Mexicans rejected.
Oregon Treaty
British were tired of fighting for Oregon, proposed 49 degree line to Polk. Senate accepted. (1846)
Wilmot Proviso
Stated slavery should not exist in the new land acquired from war. Defeated in Senate.
Mexican American War
War between Americans and Mexicans. Primarily about Mexico, but both side had flimsy pretenses.
Webster-Ashburton Treaty
Split disputed territory near Maine: Americans got majority of land, but British got land to build Halifax-Quebec land.
James Polk
Pro-expansion Democrat, won election of 1844. Wanted to lower tariff, restore the independent treasury, and acquire California and settle Oregon.
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Ended Mexican American war, Mexico handed over almost all SW territory and US paid Mexican debts.
Zachary Taylor
Whig who won election of 1848, died in office before accomplishing much.
Gold in California
When gold was discovered in California, it led to a massive migration to the state. These miners pushed for statehood.
Mexican Cession
Texas, California, all area in between.
Free-Soil Party
Regional, single-issue party devoted to abolitionism.
Millard Fillmore
Took over for Taylor, had to deal with North and South hostilities.
Compromise of 1850
Dealt with sectional hostilities. California joined as a free state, rest of Mexican Cession became states with no slavery restriction. Benefited the North more than the South.
Fugitive Slave Act
Slaves couldn't testify on own behalf, denied a jury trial, and had to be returned if found escaped in North. (Northerners hated this.)
California enters Union
Entered as a free state as part of Compromise of 1850, threw off balance.
Clayton-Bulwer Treaty
Neither America nor Britain would fortify or secure exclusive control over any future isthmian waterway.
"Uncle Tom's Cabin"
Harriet Beecher Stowe, portrayed cruelties of story, became sort of bible for abolitionists.
Know-Nothing (American) Party
Strictly anti-immigrationist party, very secretive. Gained momentum, but died due to overuling issue of slavery.
Franklin Pierce
Favored territorial expansion, Manifest Destiny.
Kansas-Nebraska Act
Stated Kansas and Nebraska should come into the Union under popular sovereignty. Senator Stephen A. Douglas introduced it, and it pushed the country even closer the Civil War.
Republican Party
In 1854, it formed from the antislavery Whigs and Democrats, the Free-Soilers and various other groups. Ran Lincoln in 1860 and won.
Ostend Manifesto
Secret document that urged administration to offer $120 for Cuba.
John Brown's attack on Pottawatomie Creek, Kansas
Led a band of supporters to viciously murder five proslavery men. (1856)
Brooks-Sumner incident
SC Congressman Brooks (pro-slavery) took a cane to MA Senator Sumner (abolitionist) after he insulted SC and slavery.
James Buchanan
President who poorly dealt with Kansas, pushed for slavery, and ignored South Carolina's secession.
Dred Scott v. Sanford
Ruled that slaves were in fact property, and could not sue in court.
Lecopmton Constitution
Proslavery Kansans drafted constitution, but voters had to vote for it "with slavery" or "with no slavery." Win-win situation for them, because constitution w/o slavery protected rights of slave-holding Kansans. Buchanan supported it, but Douglas made sure entire constitution went up for vote instead.
Lincoln-Douglas Debates
Abraham Lincoln challenged Stephen Douglas (both running for Illinois Senator) to a series of seven debates. Douglas won, but Lincoln gained popularity.
Freeport Doctrine
During L-D debate, Lincoln asked if the people of a territory voted against slavery despite Supreme Court, who would prevail. Douglas said the people.
John Brown's raid on Harper's Ferry
With a group of abolitionists, he led an attack in Virginia that killed seven innocent people.
Abraham Lincoln
One of the most important presidents, "Honest Abe" led country through Civil War. Issued "Emancipation Proclamation" freeing slaves.
Fort Sumter
SC saw naval force to protect the fort as a sign of aggression, and fired cannons. South technically won, but North now had chance to delcare war.
The Confederacy
Group of 13 states that seceded from US government, based on grounds of states' rights, but mainly because of slavery.
Trent Affair
Union siezing of confederates upon British ship angered British almost to the point that they supported Confederacy.
Confiscation Act
Allowed Union to liberate those slaves used by the Confederacy for "insurrectionary purposes."
Sherman's march through Georgia
Total war - marched through Georgia destroying everything as they went. Depleted Southern supplies and moral.
Appomattox Court House
Place of General Lee's surrender to Union. (4/11/65)
Lincoln's Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction (10% Plan)
Proclaimed a state could be reintegrated into the Union when 10% of its voters pledged their allegiance to the U.S. and emancipation, and then formally erected a state government.
Wade-Davis Bill
Congress passed this bill to begin Reconstruction. Like Lincoln's 10% plan, except it required 50%.
Freedmen's Bureau
Provided food, shelter, clothing, welfare, education for slaves (1865)
13th, 14th, 15th Amendments
13th - Ended slavery
14th - Gave blacks civil rights
15th - Black suffrage
Black Codes
Tried to limit rights of blacks by making them sign one year contract to low-paying job.
Civil Rights Acts
Officially made blacks citizens of the US
Ku Klux Klan
Violently tried to reinstate pre-War way of life. Attacked and murdered numerous blacks.
Military Reconstruction Act
Imposed martial law on the South, called for new state constitutional conventions, forced the states to allow blacks to vote for convention delegates, and required each state to ratify 14th Amendment and sent its constitution to Congress for approval.
Tenure of Office Act
President had to get consent of Senate before removing an appointment. (Johnson violated, led to impeachment)
Impeachment of Johnson
Congress, who strongly disliked Johnson, finally got it's chance to impeach him when he violated the Tenure of Office Act (even though it was unfair).
Ulysses S. Grant
Second president of Gilded Age. Fared much better as a general, because his presidency was marked by corruption.
Fisk-Gould scandal
Jim Fisk and Jay Gould exploited US Treasury to benefit themselves. Exemplified corruption in America when proven guilty.
"Boss" Tweed
Manipulated NYC to profit himself at expense of others.
Credit Mobilier scandal
Involved Union Pacific insiders creating the Credit Mobilier construction company and hiring themselves at inflated prices.
Whiskey Ring
After the Whiskey Ring robbed the Treasury, Grant delcared, "Let no guilty man escape," his own secretary was found to be a culprit. However, he wrote a letter on his behalf , and country began to turn on Grant.
Rutherford B. Hayes
"The Great Unknown," won the controversial election of 1876.
Compromise of 1877
Established the Electoral Count Act (because therewere questions surrounding FL and LA) and led to the Democrats allowing Hayes the presidency if he withdrew troops from LA and SC.
Booker T. Washington
Promoted economic independence as the means by which blacks could improve their status.
Plessy v. Ferguson
Ruled that "separate but equal" facilies for different races was legal. (1896)
Amnesty Act
Pardoned many of the rebels and allowed them to reenter public acts. (1872)
Homestead Act
Allowed a settler to acquire as much as 160 acres of land by living on it for five years, improving it, and paying $30. Urged many to move out West.
Morrill Land Grant Act
Provided money for agricultural colleges.
Sioux Wars
Series of clashes that insued as railroads intruded into Native American lands.
Chief Joseph/Nez Perce
Chief Joseph surrendered to the Nez Perce indians, but ultimately forced them into reservations.
Exodusters
Blacks who knew what fate awaited them in the South and moved to the Midwest to start anew.
Helent Hunt Jackson/"A Century of Disorder"
Detailed the injustices of the reservation system, and inspired reformers to push for a change.
Wounded Knee massacre
Americans wiped out "Ghost Dance" cult to stop the Sun Dance.
Bessemer Process
Cold air blown on red-hot iron causes metal to become white hot by igniting the carbon and thus eliminating impurities.
Union Pacific and Central Pacific joined/transcontinental line
Central Pacific and Union Pacific lines met at Ogden, Utah, creating the first transcontinental railroad line.
Standard Oil
Rockefeller's oil monopoly, many held stocks in it. Exemplified "horizontal integration."
Munn v. Illinois
Upheld Granger Laws that regulated railroads.
Edison/light bulb
Edison invented the light bulb at the turn of the century, revolutionizing the American way of life.
Wabash case
Ruled states could not regulate interstate commerce.
Sherman Antitrust Act
Forbidded any "combination...or conspiracy in the restraint of trade." Was not very effective, claimed unions to be monopolies.
Interstate Commerce Act
Created the Interstate Commerce Commission to regulate unfair railroad practices.
U.S. v. Knight Co.
Let sugar refinery slip through loophole of Sherman Anti-Trust Act, thereby weakening it.
U.S. Steel Corporation
J.P. Morgan's steel empire, first billion-dollar corporation.
National Labor Union
Union created in 1866 that numbered around 600,000 members and represented the skilled, unskilled, and farmers.
Knights of Labor
Secret society for labor that preached toleration and solidarity for all of the labor classes.
Chinese Exclusion Act
Barred immigration of Chinese from 1882 until 1946.
Brooklyn Bridge
Added to the seductive glamour of gleaming cities.
American Federation of Labor
An association of self-governing national unions, each of which kept its independence, with the AF of L unifying overall strategy.
Samuel Gompers
Founded AFL, wanted to achieve social reform through better standards for laborers, opposed political involvement.
Haymarket Square riot
Riot by Knight anarchists, police tried to break up the strike, all were met with explosion of a bomb. K of L lost prestige.
American Protective Association
Formed to urge voting against Roman Catholic candidates and sponsored the publication of lustful nun fantasies.
Jane Addams/Hull House
Provided such services as English lessons, day care, child care classes, and playgrounds.
Homestead Strike
Strike that turned violent at Carnegie's Homestead steel plant. (1892)
Eugene V. Debs
Prominent union supporter. Organized the American Railway Union, was later convicted under Alien and Espionage Acts, and ran for president on Socialist platform.
American Railway Union
Founded by Eugene V. Debs.
Pullman Strike
When Pullman Palace Car Company fired workers, and union members retaliated by turning over cars and halting railway traffic.
Gentlemen's Agreement
The SF Board of Education would repeal its demand that Japanese students be separated and Japan would stop the flow of laborers into the mainland by withholding passports.
Chautaugua Movement
Nationwide public lectures, often featuring prominent speakers.
Muckrakers
Huge aspect of progressive movement, wrote exposés against large corporations.
Frederick Jackson Turner/"The Significance of the Frontier in American History"
Declared America no longer had a frontier, changed American psyche completely. (1893)
The Grange/Oliver Kelley
Led the National Grange of the Pattrons of Husbandry, first real organization of the populist movement.
Bland-Allison Act
Stated that the Treasury had to buy and coin between $2 and $4 million worth of silver bullion each month. The government put down hopes of inflationists when it bought only the legal minimum.
James Garfield
Gilded Age president, cabinet was plagued with scandal, but he was assassinated early into presidency.
Chester Arthur
Followed Garfield, favored civil service reform.
Pendleton Act
It prohibited financial assessments on jobholders, rid the government of the spoils system, and set up a Civil Service Commission. People were now forced to take an exam before being hired to a governmental job position.
Civil Service Commission
Oversaw examinations for potential government employees.
Benjamin Harrison
Gilded Age president. Congress under him known as the "Billion Dollar Congress" for showering veterans with pensions, passing the McKinley Tariff Act and
Sherman Silver Purchase Act
Forced the treasury to buy 4.5 million ounces of silver each month. However, the price of silver did not rise and precious gold was being drained away from the treasury while cheap silver piled up. Led to panic of 1893.
McKinley Tariff
Boosted rates to their highest peacetime level ever (48% average on dutiable goods). Helped nation recover from recession.
Coxey's Army
A band of unemployed people who marched to DC during the depression of 1894 under the leadership of Jacob S. Coxey. They urged the enactment of laws which would provide money without interest for public improvements to create work.
Wilson-Gorman Tariff
Did not have Cleveland’s approval. It did have a modest income tax of 12% on all income over $4000, but the Supreme Court declared it unconstitutional.
William McKinley
Republican president who believed in the gold standard. Much of his campaign was run by Marcus Hanna. Began era of imperialism.
William Jennings Bryan
Populist candidate in election of 1896 (among others). Platform was based on strong support for silver standard.
"Cross of Gold Speech"
Responsible for gaining Bryan popularity. To supporters of gold: "You shall not crucify mankind upon this cross of gold."
Populist Party/Platform
Party that consisted of mainly farmers and was said to represent the "common man." Wanted silver standard, a graduated income tax, and direct election of U.S. Senators.
Seward Purchase of Alaska
Paid $7.2 million for "Seward's icebox," but later proved to be useful addition.
Alfred Thayer Mahan/"The Importance of Sea Power Upon History"
Received international recognition as a comprehensive of naval strategy.
Queen Liliuokalani/Hawaii
Queen of Hawaii who disliked Americans and was overthrown when sugar prices dropped. Planters wanted the independent Republic of Hawaii and requested annexation from the US.
Spanish American War
War that lasted just three months and was started after mysterious bombing of U.S.S. Heart’s yellow journalism contributed to war. The Filipinos celebrated their freedom from four hundred years of Spanish rule on July 4,1898.
de Lome letter
Hearst’s Journal published a private letter written by Spanish minister to the United States Depuy de Lôme regarding his reservations for Cuban independence and disparaging President McKinley. Helped spark war.
U.S.S. Maine
Ship that exploded in Havana harbor, blamed on Spanish, sparked war.
Rough Riders
A group of cowboys, ex-convicts, etc, who captured San Juan Hill in the Spanish-American war.
Joseph Pulitzer
Owner of the "New York World," helped originate and title the practice of sensationalistic "yellow journalism."
William Randolph Hearst
In his "Journal," he printed sensational stories, using techniques of "yellow journalism." Boasted he started Spanish-American War.
"Yellow journalism"
Sensational journalism, involved using lurid stories of sex and scandal that would appeal to Americans to sell papers. Often times stories weren't based in fact.
Teller Amendment
Speciffically prohibited the annexation of Cuba, promised Cubans independence.
Dewey/Manila
Spanish-American war was started when Dewey’s fleet seized or destroyed all ten Spanish ships anchored in Manila Bay (Philippines).
Treaty of Paris (1898)
Ended the Spanish-American War and developed an American empire overseas. Spain agreed to abandon Cuba and exchange Puerto Rico, Guam and the Philippines to America for $20 million.
Venezuela boundary dispute
Venezuela had a dispute over its boundary with the British Colony of Guiana. British refused to resolve the issue, so United States Secretary of State Richard Olney sent a message to London declaring US would be "practically sovereign on this content."
The Philippines
Recieved these islands after S-A War. Although he considered giving them up after insurrections, McKinley ultimately kept them.
Open Door Notes
Policy that explained the importance of American commercial influence on foreign policies, but urged world powers to respect Chinese rights and ideal of fair competition.
Boxer Rebellion
Rebellion against Christianity in China that required many foreign troops to supress.
Puerto Rico, Samoa, Guam
Islands (along with the Philippines) given to the US for $20 million from Spain after Treaty of Paris.
Filipino insurrection
Emilio Aguinaldo led a Filipino movement for independence in 1896, and wrote constitution when Spain surrendered. When US received Philippines, they tried to fight again, but quickly gave up.
Platt Amendment
Stated that US would withdraw from Cuba if they did not sign a treaty with any other foreign power, gave the US the right to interfere with Cuba if they believed it was necessary, and established US right to hold a naval base in Cuba.
Jones Act
Provided for a government for the Philippines and committed the United States to granting Filipino independence. (1916)
National Woman Suffrage Association
Organization founded by Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton, fought for women's equality in courts and workplaces as well as the polls.
Susan B. Anthony
Prominent feminist, helped found the National Woman Suffrage Association
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Feminist who helped organize Seneca Falls convention and establish the National Woman Suffrage Association.
Women's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU)
Organization of women lobbying for prohibition. Led by Carrie A. Nation and Frances Willard.
Anti-Saloon League
Organization promoting prohibition..
Theodore Roosevelt
President known for his "big stick" diplomacy, love of nature, and progressivism.
Hay-Pauncefote Treaty
Treaty between US and Britain to give US building rights for the Panama Canal. (1901)
Newlands Reclamation Act
Insured that all natural resources would be managed by experts. Funding came from public-land sales and was used to build irrigation projects.
Women's Trade Union League
Organized by female activists, helped give femal reformers an national stage for social investigation and advocacy.
Nothern Securities Co. v. U.S.
Upheld Roosevelt's antitrust suit, ordered the Northern Securities Co. to be dissolved. Jolted Wall Street, angered big business, increased Roosevelt's popularity.
Hay Bunau Varilla Treaty
Helped US secure a ten mile zone to build their canal. (1902)
Roosevelt Corollary
Addition to Monroe Doctrine, justified U.S. intervention in Latin American affairs if their weakness or wrongdoing warranted such action.
Russo-Japanese War
First conflict in which an Asian power defeated a European country. (1904)
Treaty of Portsmouth
Ended Russo-Japanese War. (1905)
Taft-Katsura Agreement
The US and Japan pledged to maintain the Open Door principles in China, Japan recognized US control over the Philippines, and the USgranted a Japanese protectorate over Korea.
Nigara Movement/NAACP
Both organized by W.E.B. DuBois. National Association for the Advancement of Colored People was created by Nigara Movement.
W.E.B. DuBois
Black leader who fought for universal suffrage and civil rights, and founded the Nigara Movement and NAACP.
Jacob Riis/"How the Other Half Lives"
Realistically illustrated how poor lived in urban slums.
Lochner v. New York
Invalidated a New York law establishing a ten-hour day for bakers, was later repealed. (1905)
Hepburn Act
Allowed the ICC to set freight rates and required a uniform system of accounting by regulated transportation companies.
Upton Sinclair/"The Jungle"
Described awful conditions of meat packing industry, led to Meat Inspection Act.
Meat Inspection Act
Response to "The Jungle," created strict sanitary requirements for meat, began a quality rating system, and provisioned for a federal department to inspect meat.
Pure Food and Drug Act
Gave consumers protection from dangerous and impure foods by requiring clear food labels.
National Municipal League
Organization to improve city standards and reform the system.
Root-Takahira Agreement
Japan and the US promised not to seek territorial gain in the Pacific and would honor an open door policy in China.
Muller v. Oregon
Ruled laws to protect women workers were constitutional.
Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire
Accidentally killed 141 workers, prodded concerns that raised new questions of human and immigrant rights and of existing labor laws.
17th Amendment
Stated U.S. Senators would now be elected by people, not state legislature.
Margaret Sanger/Birth Control
Organized movement supporting birth control.
19th Amendment
Granted women the right to vote (finally). (1920)
Adkins v. Children's Hospital
Reversed Muller v. Oregon, declared laws to protect women workers were unconstitutional. (1923)
Triple Alliance
Original Allies in WWI: Britain, France, and Russia.
Triple Entente
Original Central Powers in WWI: Germany, Austria- Hungary, and Italy.
William Howard Taft
Taft, not very popular, but busted more trusts and major corporations than Roosevelt.
Ballinger/Pinchot Affair
Taft lost popularity when he supported Ballinger, who bended the government's environmental policies.
Payne-Aldrich Tariff
Initially intended to lower several other tariffs, but ultimately became a protective measure. (1909)
Mann-Elkins Act
Further extended the regulatory ability of the ICC by letting it regulate cable and wireless companies dealing with telephone and telegraph lines.
Progressive (Bull Moose) Party
Progressive Party created by TR, advocated primary elections, women's suffrage, and prohibition of child labor.
Underwood Tariff
Substantially reduced import fees. (1913)
16th Amendment
Enacted income tax.
Federal Reserve Act
A compromise designed to stabilize the currency in the US. Split the US into 12 regions each with a Federal bank that determined interest rate, and from which commercial banks bought stock.
Clayton-Antitrust Act
Modified Sherman Antitrust Act, stated labor unions and farm organizations were not monopolies.
Federal Trade Commission Act
Promoted free and fair trade ompetition.
Archduke Ferdinand
His assassination sparked numerous alliances that led to WWI.
Luistania
Armed British ship that Germany torpedoed, led to US involvement in WWI.