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18 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Thomas Jefferson
Under the executive branch of the new constitution, Thomas Jefferson was the Secretary of State. When Alexander Hamilton wanted to create a new national bank, Jefferson adamantly spoke against it. He felt it would violate states rights by causing a huge competitor for the state banks, then causing a federal monopoly. Jefferson's argument was that since the Constitution did not say Congress could create a bank they should not be given that power. This is the philosophy of strict construction. Thomas Jefferson's beliefs led to the creation of the political party, Democratic Republicans. They believed in an extremely weak central government, no special privileges for special classes, especially manufacturers, and did not believe in letting every white male the ability to vote, only those intelligent enough to make wise decisions.
Alexander Hamilton
Great political leader; youngest and brightest of Federalists; "father of the National Debt"; from New York; became a major general; military genius; Secretary of Treasury; lived from 1755-1804; became Secretary of the Treasury under George Washington in 1789; established plan for economy that went in to affect in 1790 including a tariff that passed in 1789, the assupmtion of state debts which went into affect in 1790, an excise on different products (including whiskey) in 1791, and a plan for a national bank which was approved in 1791; plan to take care of the national debt--a. fund debt at face value, b. assumption of state debts, c. creation of National Bank, D. taxes (tariffs and excises)--plan was a success in dealing with the national debt; founded the Federalist Party.
Funding at par
an economic plan plan devised in 1790 by Hamilton in order to "bolster the nation's credit" and strengthen the central govrenment. It was a plan to exchange old bonds for new bonds at face value. This would take on the dents of all the states and reinforce faith in the government bonds. (168)
Part of Hamilton's economic theory. Stated that the federal government would assume all the states' debts for the American Revolution. This angered states such as Virginia who had already paid off their debts.
Excise tax
A tax on the manufacturing of any item. Helped Hamilton to achieve his theory on a strong central gov't. Supported by the wealthy manufacturers. Demonstrated the power of the federal government
Bill of Rights
The first 10 amendments of the Constitution, the bill of rights was added in 1791 when it was adopted by the necessary number of states.
Whiskey Rebellion
A small rebellion that began in PA in 1794. Challenge to the gov'ts use of excise tax. Washington crushed the rebellion with force.
Jeffersonian Republicans
One of the nation's first political partices. Stemmed from anti-federalists, emerged around 1792. Pro-French, liberal, and mostly the middle class. Favored weak central gov't and strong states' rights.
Judiciary Act of 1789
Organized the Supreme Court, originally with five justices and a chief justic. Created the Attorney General's office. Created judiciary branch of US gov't
John Adams
A Federalist who was VP under Washington in 1789, and later became President in 1796. Known for his quarrel with France and was involved in the XYZ Affair.
Compact Theory
Supported by Jefferson and Madison. Meant that the thirteen states, by creating the federa l gov't, had entered into a contract about its jurisdiction. the national government was the agent of the states. This meant that the individual states were the final judges of the nat'l gov'ts actions.
The Federalist party had passed the Alien & Sedition acts to regulate strong opponents. These laws violated the freedoms of the first amendment. Jefferson & Madison protested the laws by writing the VA and Kentucky Resolutions, which asked states to declare the laws null.
French Revolution
Began in 1789 wih some nonviolent restrictions on the king, but became more hostile in 1792 when France declared war on Austria. Seeking help from Amer, the French pointed to the Franco-Amer alliance of 1778. Not wanting to get involved for fear of damage to the trade business, Washington gave the Neutrality Proclamation, which made Amer neutral. This led to arguments w/Amer and France, but came to peace in 1800.
Jay treaty 1794
Offered little concessions from Brit to the US, disturbed the Jeffersonians. Jay was able to get Brit to say that they would evacuate the chain of posts on US soil and pay damages for recent seizures of American ships. The Brits, h/e, would not promise to leave Amer ships alone in the future.
Pinckney Treaty 1795
Gave Amer what they demanded from the Spanish. Free navigation of the Mississippi, large area of N Florida.
Neutrality Proclamation
1793, issued by George Washington, established isolationist policy, proclaimed government's official neutrality in widening European conflicts also warned Amer citizens about intervening on either side of the conflict
Farewell Address
Document by George Washington in 1796, when he retired from office. Wasn't given orally, but was printed in newspapers. It didn't concern foreign affairs; most of it was devoted to domestic problems. Stressed that we should stay away from permanent alliances with foreign countryes; temporary alliances wouldn't be quite as dangerous, but they should be made only in extraordinary emergencies. Also spoke against partisan biterness. Rejected by the Jeffersonians, who favored French alliance.
Treaty of Greenville
Gave America all of Ohio after General Wayne battled and defeated the Indians at the Battle of Fallen Timbers. 1795 allowed Amers to explore the area with peace of mind that the land belonged to Amers and added fertile land to us.