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40 Cards in this Set

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hindsight bias
tendency to believe that one would hav known it after the results are shown; seems like common sense
theory
explanation using set of principles to oranize/predict observations
hypothesis
testable prediction
replicateed
the experiment can be repeated and would yield constant results
case study
research method where one person is studied in depth to find universal principles (things that apply to all)
survey
research method to get the self-reported attitudes/behaviours of people
false consensus effect
tendency to overestimate other's agreement with us (ex: vegetarians believe larger amount of pop. is vegetarian than meat-eaters----wtf?)
naturalistic observation
observing and recording behaviour in natural settings without any control on situation
correlation
the way 2 factors vary together and how well one predicts the other
positive correlation
direct relationship where factors increase or decrease together
negative correlation
inverse relationship where one factor goes up while one goes down
phrenology
false theory where bumps on head dictate personality and intelligence (but theory directed out attention to brain region and function)
neurons
nerve cells
dendrites
message receiving fibers
axons
message sending fibers insulated by myelin sheath
myelin sheath
fatty cells that help speed up impulses and insulate axons
threshold
intensity of stimulus
all-or-nothing principle
the neuron either fires or it doesn't
synapse (or synaptic cleft)
tiny gap between sending neuron and receiving neuron
neurotransmitters
chemical messengers; they bind onto specific receptor sites on the receiving neuron
acetylcholine (ACh)
neurotransmitter that causes muscles to contract in movement
endorphins
natural opiates produced in body to control pain and induce pleasure ("morphine within")
agonists
molecules which mimic the shape of natural neurotransmitters (morphine)
antagonists
molecules which block neurotranmitters from binding on receptor sites
The Nervous System is composed of ______ ______ ______ and ______ ______ ______.
Central Nervous System (CNS) and Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
Central Nervous System (CNS)
brain and spinal cord
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
links CNS to body's muscles and glands by means of nerves which are bundles of sensory and motor neurons
sensory and motor neurons
carry incoming and outgoing information respectively
Autonomic Nervous System
made up of Sympathetic Nervous System and Parasympathetic Nervous System
Sympathetic Nervous System
arouses body for defense (increases heartbeat, dilating pupils, inhibit digestions, etc.)
Parasympathetic Nervous System
calms body after stress
reflex
automatic response to stimuli involving messages from sensory to interneuron (spinal cord) to morot neuron
Endocrine System
slow hormone secreting system; communicates by releasing hormones into bloodstream
Adrenal glands
release epinephrine and norepinephrine hormones (also called adrenaline and noradrenaline)
Pituitary gland
most powerful endocrine gland; under infulence of hypothalamus; releases hormones regulating glands and growth
lesions
remove brain tissue
Electroencephalogram (EEG)
measures brain electric activity
Computed Tomograph (CT or CAT Scan)
taking x-ray photographs of brain
Positron Emission Tomograph (PET Scan)
detects radioactive glucose consumption in brain
Madnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
generates brain images from magnetic activity