Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

149 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The recovery and study of classical authors and writings.
The emphasis on the unique and creative personally - ex. the artist seen as 'celebrity'
The application and use of reason in understanding and explaining events.
The period of 1400 to 1600 that witnessed a transformation of cultural and intellectual values from primarily Christian to classical or secular ones.
The emphasis is on the here and now, rather than on the spiritual and otherworldly.
The sensuous and dynamic style of art of the Counter Reformation
French theologian who established a theocracy in Geneva, and is best known for his theory of predestination
John Calvin
The congress of learned Roman Catholic authories that met intermittently from 1545 to 1563 to reform abusive church practices and reconcile with the Protestants.
Council of Trent
a list of books that Catholics were forbidden to read
the Index
Papal pardon for remission of sins.
A religious committee of six Roman cardinals that tried heretics and punished the guilty by imprisonment and execution.
Also known as the Society of Jesus; founded by Ignatius Loyola (1491-1556) as a teaching and missionary order to resist the spread of Protestantism.
(1505-1572) Calvinist leader in sixteenth-century Scotland.
John Knox
(1483-1546) - German theologian who challenged the church's practice of selling indulgences, a challenge that ultimately led to the destruction of the unity of the Roman Catholic world.
Martin Luther
(1478-1535 - Renaissance humanist and chancellor of England, executed by Henry VIII for his unwillingness to recognize publicly his king as Supreme Head of the church and clergy of England.
Sir Thomas More
The practice of rewarding relatives with church positions.
(1555) - Document in which Charles V recognized Lutheranism as a legal religion in the Holy Roman Empire. The faith of the prince determined the religion of his subjects.
Peace of Augsburg
The holding of several benefices, or church offices.
The selling of church offices
A community, such as Calvin's Geneva, in which the state Is subordinate to the church
The practice of lending money for interest.
(1594-1632) - Swedish Lutheran who won victories for the German Protestants in the Thirty Years War and lost his life in one of the battles
Gustavus Adolphus
(1588) - Spanish vessels defeated in the English Channel by an English fleet, thus preventing Philip II's invasion of England.
First European to reach the Pacific Ocean, 1513.
Vasco de Balboa
1547-1589 - The wife of Henry II (1547-1559) of France, who exercised political influence after the death of her husband and during the rule of her weak sons.
Catherine de Medici
First European to sail to the West Indies, 1492.
Christopher Columbus
Conqueror of the Aztecs, 1519-1521.
Fernando Cortez
The hurling, by Protestants, of Catholic officials from a castle window in Prague, setting off the Thirty Years' War
Defenestration of Prague
Government-chartered joint-stock company that controlled the spice trade in the East Indies
Dutch East India Company
1598) - The edict of Henry IV that granted Huguenots the rights of public worship and religious toleration in France.
Edict of Nantes
(1558-1603) - Protestant ruler of England who helped stabilize religious tensions by subordinating theological issues to political considerations.
Elizabeth I
Sponsor of voyages along West African coasts, 1418.
Prince Henry the Navigator
(1589-1610) - Formerly Henry of Navarre; ascended the French throne as a convert to Catholicism. Surrived St. Bartholomew Day, signed Edict of Nantes, quoted as saying "Paris is worth a mass."
Henry IV
French Calvinists.
Circumnavigator of the globe, 1519-1522.
Ferdinand Magellan
(1648) - The treaty ending the Thirty Years' War in Germany; it allowed each prince-whether Lutheran, Catholic, or Calvinist-to choose the established creed of his territory.
Peace of Westphalia
(1556-1598) - Son and successor to Charles V, ruling Spain and the Low Countries.
Philip II
Conqueror of Peru, 1532-1533.
Francisco Pizarro
(August 24, 1572) - Catholic attack on Calvinists on the marriage day of Margaret of Valois to Henry of Navarre (later Henry IV).
St. Bartholemew's Day
(1572-1584 - Leader of the seventeen provinces of the Netherlands.
Prince William of Orange
(1585-1642) Minister to Louis XIII. His three point plan (1. Break the power of the nobility, 2. Humble the House of Austria, 3. Control the Protestants) helped to send France on the road to absolute monarchy.
Cardinal Richelieu
The theory that the monarch is supreme and can exercise full and complete power unilaterally
(1689) - English document declaring that sovereignty resided with Parliament.
Bill of Rights
(1625-1649) - Stuart king who brought conflict with Parliament to a head and was subsequently executed.
Charles I
(1660 1685) - Stuart king during the Restoration, following Cromwell's Interregnum.
Charles II
(1619-1683) - The financial minister under the French king Louis XIV who promoted mercantilist policies.
The theory that power should be shared between rulers and their subjects and the state governed according to laws
(1559-1658) - The principal leader and a gentry member of the Puritans in Parliament.
Oliver Cromwell
Radical groups in England in the 1650s who called for the abolition of private ownership and extension of the franchise.
Diggers and Levellers
The belief that a monarch's power derives from God and represents Him on earth
Divine right monarchy
(1740-1786) - The Prussian ruler who expanded his territory by invading the duchy of Silesia and defeating Maria Theresa of Austria.
Frederick the Great
The style in seventeenth-century art and literature resembling the arts in the ancient world and in the Renaissance-e.g., the works of Poussin, Moliere, and Racine.
French Classicism
The last aristocratic revolt against a French monarch, it means 'to throw'.
A reference to the political events of 1688-1689, when James II abdicated his throne and was replaced by his daughter Mary and her husband, Prince William of Orange.
Glorious Revolution
The legal protection that prohibits the imprisonment of a subject without demonstrated cause
Habeas corpus
1588-1679) - Political theorist advocating absolute monarchy based on his concept of an anarchic state of nature.
Thomas Hobbes
The period of Cromwellian rule (1649-1659), between the Stuart dynastic rules of Charles I and Charles II.
(1603-1625 - Stuart monarch who ignored constitutional principles and asserted the divine right of kings.
(1685-1688 - Final Stuart ruler; he was forced to abdicate in favor of William and Mary, who agreed to the Bill of Rights, guaranteeing parliamentary supremacy.
James II
(1632-1704 - Political theorist who defended the Glorious Revolution with the argument that all people are born with certain natural rights to life, liberty, and property.
John Locke
(1643-1715 - Also known as the "Sun King"; the ruler of France who established the supremacy of absolutism in seventeenth-century Europe.
Louis XIV
(1740-1780) - Archduchess of Austria, queen of Hungary, who lost the Hapsburg possession of Silesia to Frederick the Great but was able to keep her other Austrian territories.
Maria Theresa
Governmental policies by which the state regulates the economy, through taxes, tariffs, subsidies, laws
The disciplined fighting force of Protestants led by Oliver Cromwell in the English civil war
New Model Army
(1713 - The pact concluding the War of the Spanish Succession, forbidding the union of France with Spain, and conferring control of Gibraltar on England.
Peace of Utrecht
(1682-1725 - The Romanov czar who initiated the westernization of Russian society by traveling to the West and incorporating techniques of manufacturing as well as manners and dress.
Peter the Great
(1628) - Parliamentary document that restricted the king's power. Most notably, it called for recognition of the writ of habeas corpus and held that only Parliament could impose new taxes.
Petition of Right
A reference to the English civil war (1642-1646), waged to determine whether sovereignty would reside in the monarch or in Parliament
Puritan Revolution
Protestant sect in England hoping to "purify" the Anglican church of Roman Catholic traces in practice and organization
The return of the Stuart monarchy (1660) after the period of republican government under Cromwell-in fact, a military dictatorship
1673) Law prohibiting Catholics and dissenters to hold political office
Test Act
Palace constructed by Louis XIV outside of Paris to glorify his rule and subdue the nobility.
1701-1713 - The last of Louis XIV's wars involving the issue of succession to the Spanish throne
War of the Spanish Succession
(1672-1702 - Dutch prince and foe of Louis XIV who became king of England in 1689.
William of Orange
(1561-1626}inductive thinker who stressed experimentation in arriving at truth
Francis Bacon
(1473-1543 - Polish astronomer who posited a heliocentric universe in place of a geocentric universe
Nicolaus Copernicus
The belief that God has created the universe and set it in motion to operate like clockwork. God is literally in the wings watching the show go on as humans forge their own destiny.
(1596-1650 - Deductive thinker whose famous saying cogito, ergo sum ("I think, therefore I am") challenged the notion of truth as being derived from tradition and Scriptures
Rene Descarte
The intellectual revolution of the eighteenth century in which the philosophes stressed reason, natural law, and progress in their criticism of prevailing social injustices.
(1564-1642)-Italian scientist who formulated terrestrial laws and the modern law of Inertia; he also provided evidence for the Copernican hypothesis
The economic concept of the Scottish philosophe Adam Smith (1723-1790). In opposition to mercantilism, Smith urged governments to keep hands off the operation of the economy. He believed the role of government was analogous to the night watchman, guarding and protecting but not intervening in the operation of the economy, which must be left to run in accord with the natural laws of supply and demand.
(1642-1727 - English scientist who formulated the law of gravitation that posited a universe operating In accord with natural law
Isaac Newton
Social critics of the eighteenth century who subjected social institutions and practices to the test of reason.
Organized bodies for scientific study, made first collections, which in turn became first natural history museum collections
Royal Society of London and French Academy of Sciences
John Locke's concept of the mind as a blank sheet ultimately bombarded by sense impressions that, aided by human reasoning, formulate ideas
Tabula rasa
Crime and Punishment.
Cesare Beccaria
Denis Diderot
An Inquiry Concerning Human Understanding
David Hume
Two Treatises on Government; Essay on Human Understanding
John Locke
Spirit of the Laws, Persian Letters
The Social Contract; Emile.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Wealth of Nations.
Adam Smith
Philosophical Letters; Candide
A Vindication of the Rights of Woman
Mary Wollstonecraft
Old Regime)-France prior to the French Revolution
Ancien regime
Fees that peasants were obligated to pay landlords for the use of the village mill, bakeshop and winepress
The political prison and armory stormed on July 14, 1789, by Partisian city workers alarmed by the king's concentration of troops at Versailles
List of grievances that each Estate drew up in preparation for the summoning of the Estates-General in 1789.
Cahier de doleances
The codification and condensation of laws assuring legal equality and uniformity in France.
Code Napoleon
The leaders under Robespierre who organized the defenses of France, conducted foreign policy, and centralized authority during the period 1792-1795.
Committee of Public Safety
Napoleon's arrangement with Pope Plus VII to heal religious division in France with a united Catholic church under bishops appointed by the government.
Concordat (1801)
Napoleon's efforts to block foreign trade with England by forbidding Importation of British goods Into Europe
Continental System
Roadwork; an obligation of peasants to landowners.
Overthrow of those in power.
Coup d'etat
(1791) Austria and Prussia agreed to intervene in France to end the revolution with the unanimous agreement of the great powers
Declaration of Pillnitz
(August 27, 1789) - Document that embodied the liberal revolutionary Ideals and general principles of the philosophes' writings.
Declaration of the Rights of Man end Citizen
1795-1799) - The five-man executive committee that ruled France in its own interests as a republic after Robespierre's execution and prior to Napoleon's coming to power.
The French national assembly summoned in 1789 to remedy the financial crisis and correct abuses of the ancien regime
Estates General
The panic and insecurity that struck French peasants in the summer of 1789 and led to their widespread destruction of manor houses and archives
Great Fear
The dominant group In the National Convention in 1793 who replaced the Girondist. It was headed by Robespierre.
The fixing of prices on bread and other essentials under Robespierre's rule.
Law of the maximum
The creation under the Jacobins, of a citizen army with support from young and old, heralding the emergence of modern warfare
Levee en masse
(1769-1821) - Consul and later emperor of France (1799-1815), who established several of the reforms (Code Napoleon) of the French Revolution during his dictatorial rule.
Napoleon Bonaparte
date of the declaration by liberal noblemen of the National Assembly at a secret meeting to abolish the feudal regime in France.
Night of August 4, 1789
(1808-1813) - Napoleon's long-drawn-out war with Spain.
Peninsular War
(1758-1794)-Jacobin leader during the Reign of Terror (1793-1794).
A reference to Parisian workers who wore loose-fitting trousers rather than the tight-fitting breeches worn by aristocratic men
Sans culottes
direct tax from which most French nobles were exempt.
Declaration mainly by members of the Third Estate not to disband until they had drafted a constitution for France (June 20, 1789).
Tennis Court Oath
1807 - Agreement between Napoleon and Czar Alexander I in which Russia became an ally of France and Napoleon took over the lands of Prussia west of the Elbe as well as the Polish provinces
Treaty of Tilsit
was an English physician who was the first to describe correctly and in exact detail the systemic circulation and properties of blood being pumped around the body by the heart.
William Harvey
a mathematician, astronomer, and natural philosopher. He is said to be one of the most influencial men to have ever lived. He wrote the Naturalis Principia, and was the man to invent modern calculus.
Issac Newton
a 3-volume work on the foundations of mathematics, written by Alfred North Whitehead and Bertrand Russell.
Principia Mathematica
theory of knowledge is the branch of philosophy concerned with the nature and scope (limitations) of knowledge.It addresses the questions: What is knowledge? How is knowledge acquired? What do people know?How do we know what we know?
a body of techniques used to correct, determine or discover anything within the field of science.
scientific method
His works established and popularized an inductive methodology for scientific inquiry, often called the Baconian method or simply, the scientific method.
Francis Bacon
Daniel Day Lewis is the best actor, Mallory is not Daniel Day Lewis, therefore, Mallory is not the best actor.
deductive reasoning
a French philosopher, mathematician, physicist, and writer. He has been dubbed the "Father of Modern Philosophy", and much of subsequent Western philosophy is a response to his writings, which continue to be studied closely to this day.
Rene Descartes
elped create two major new areas of research. He wrote a significant treatise on the subject of projective geometry at the age of sixteen, and later corresponded with Pierre de Fermat on probability theory, strongly influencing the development of modern economics and social science
Blaise Pascal
the theory that God can be better understood if thought of as an abstract principle that represents natural law, existence, and the Universe.
In this system, natives of colonial America were assigned or given to spanish land owners who taught the natives the Spanish language and Catholic faith. In return, landowners recieved labor work from the natives. It was an attempt to define the status of the Indian population in the American colonies.
Encomienda System

He spoke out strongly against Europeans enslaving the Indians in the Americas. Instead, he suggested that black Africans replace them. He later regretted this.
Bartolome de Las Casas

This was a maritime insurance association in London that formed the first modern European insurance company in 1688.
Lloyd's of London

In the Spanish colonial caste system, this was a Spanish-born or mainland Spanaird living in the New World. This was at the very top of the Spanish caste system pyramid.

In the Spanish colonial caste system, this was people of pure or mostly Spanish ancestry born in the New World.

is a period of European art that encompasses a variety of approaches influenced by, and reacting to, the harmonious ideals and restrained naturalism

is a form of government in which power effectively rests with a small elite segment of society distinguished by royal, wealth, intellectual, family, military, or

was marchesa of Mantua and one of the leading women of the Italian Renaissance and a major cultural and political figure.
Isabella d'Este

is the native language of a country or a locality

was a Flemish painter active in Bruges and considered one of the best Northern European painters of the 15th century.
Jan van Eyck

was a German painter, printmaker and theorist from Nuremberg. His prints established his reputation across Europe when he was still in his twenties, and he has been conventionally regarded as the greatest artist of the Northern Renaissance
Albrecht Durer

was a major French Renaissance writer, doctor and Renaissance humanist. He has historically been regarded as a writer of fantasy, satire, the grotesque, and both bawdy jokes and songs.
Francois Rabelais

is a connected series of five novels written in the 16th century by François Rabelais. It is the story of two giants, a father (Gargantua) and his son (Pantagruel) and their adventures, written in an amusing, extravagant, satirical vein.

European thought that would lay the philosophical grounds for much of Renaissance art, music,and science. Erasmus believed in this type of thought.
Northern Humanism

was a Dutch Renaissance humanist and a Catholic theologian; wrote "In Praise of Folly," and "Handbood of a Christian Knight."
Desiderius Erasmus

is an essay written in 1509 by Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam and first printed in 1512 praising self-deception and madness and moves to a satirical examination of pious but superstitious abuses of Catholic doctrine and corrupt practices in parts of the Roman Catholic Church
"In Praise of Folly"

was an English lawyer, scholar, author, and gained a reputation as a leading Renaissance humanist, a violent opponent of the Reformation of Martin Luther, and a government official. For the last six years of his life he was Lord Chancellor.
Sir Thomas More

is a frame narrative primarily depicting a fictional island society and its religious, social and political customs written by Sir Thomas More

is the belief that human freedom and individualism are intrinsic (natural) parts of, or are at least compatible with, Christian doctrine and practice. It is a philosophical union of Christian and humanist principles.[1]
Christian Humanism