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390 Cards in this Set

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Dante Alighieri

Renaissance
Italian poet who wrote Inferno and Divine Comedy
Boccaccio

Renaissance
1313-1375
Wrote the Decameron which tells about ambitious merchants, portrays a sensual and wordly society
Botticelli

Renaissance
One of the leading painters of the Florentine renaissance, developed a highly personal style. The Birth of Venus
Brunelleschi

Renaissance
(1377-1446) Italian architect, celebrated for work during Florentine Renaissance. He was anti-Gothic. Foundling Hospital in Florence.
Michalangelo Buonarroti

Renaissance
(1475-1564) Worked in Rome. Painted the Sistine Chapel. Sculpted the statue of David.
Castiglione

Renaissance
Wrote The Courtier which was about education and manners and had a great influence. It said that an upper class, educated man should know many academic subjects and should be trained in music, dance, and art.
Leonardo Da Vinci

Renaissance
(1452-1519) Artist who made religious paintings and sculptures like the Last Supper.
Lorenzo de Medici

Renaissance
(1469-1492) The Medici’s were a great banking family in Florence in the 15th century. Ruled government of Florence from behind the scene.
Miguel De Cervantes

Renaissance
(1547-1616) Spanish writer. Wrote Don Quixote.
Pico Della Mirandola

Renaissance
Wrote On the Dignity of Man which stated that man was made in the image of God before the fall and as Christ after the Resurrection. Man is placed in-between beasts and the angels. He also believed that there is no limits to what man can accomplish.
Donatello

Renaissance
(1386-1466) Sculptor. Probably exerted greatest influence of any Florentine artist before Michelangelo. His statues expressed an appreciation of the incredible variety of human nature.
Erasmus

Renaissance
- (1466?-1536) Dutch Humanist, religious education. Wrote Praise of Folly.
Jacob Fugger

Renaissance
Headed leading banking, and trading house in l6th century Europe.
Giotto

Renaissance
(1276-1337) Florentine Painter who led the way in the use of realism.
Hans Holbein the Younger
- Painter noted for his portraits and religious paintings.
Dante Alighieri

Renaissance
Italian poet who wrote Inferno and Divine Comedy
Boccaccio

Renaissance
1313-1375
Wrote the Decameron which tells about ambitious merchants, portrays a sensual and wordly society
Botticelli

Renaissance
One of the leading painters of the Florentine renaissance, developed a highly personal style. The Birth of Venus
Brunelleschi

Renaissance
(1377-1446) Italian architect, celebrated for work during Florentine Renaissance. He was anti-Gothic. Foundling Hospital in Florence.
Michalangelo Buonarroti

Renaissance
(1475-1564) Worked in Rome. Painted the Sistine Chapel. Sculpted the statue of David.
Castiglione

Renaissance
Wrote The Courtier which was about education and manners and had a great influence. It said that an upper class, educated man should know many academic subjects and should be trained in music, dance, and art.
Leonardo Da Vinci

Renaissance
(1452-1519) Artist who made religious paintings and sculptures like the Last Supper.
Lorenzo de Medici

Renaissance
(1469-1492) The Medici’s were a great banking family in Florence in the 15th century. Ruled government of Florence from behind the scene.
Miguel De Cervantes

Renaissance
(1547-1616) Spanish writer. Wrote Don Quixote.
Pico Della Mirandola

Renaissance
Wrote On the Dignity of Man which stated that man was made in the image of God before the fall and as Christ after the Resurrection. Man is placed in-between beasts and the angels. He also believed that there is no limits to what man can accomplish.
Donatello

Renaissance
(1386-1466) Sculptor. Probably exerted greatest influence of any Florentine artist before Michelangelo. His statues expressed an appreciation of the incredible variety of human nature.
Erasmus

Renaissance
- (1466?-1536) Dutch Humanist, religious education. Wrote Praise of Folly.
Jacob Fugger

Renaissance
Headed leading banking, and trading house in l6th century Europe.
Giotto

Renaissance
(1276-1337) Florentine Painter who led the way in the use of realism.
Hans Holbein the Younger

Renaissance
- Painter noted for his portraits and religious paintings.
Alexander VI

Renaissance
(1492-1503) Corrupt Spanish pope. He was aided militarily and politically by his son Cesare Borgia, who was the hero of The Prince.
Humanism

Renaissance
- Studied the Latin classics to learn what they reveal about human nature. Emphasized human beings, their achievements, interests, and capabilities.
Individualism

Renaissance
- Individualism stressed personality, uniqueness, genius, and the fullest development of capabilities and talents.
Julius II

Renaissance
(1503-1513) Pope - very militaristic. Tore down the old Saint Peter’s Basilica and began work on the present structure in 1506.
Niccolo Machiavelli

Renaissance
(1469-1527) Wrote The Prince which contained a secular method of ruling a country. "End justifies the means."
Montaigne

Renaissance
(1533-1592) The finest representative of early modern skepticism. Created a new genre, the essay.
Sir Thomas More

Renaissance
(1478-1535) Englishman, lawyer, politician, Chancellor for Henry VIII. Wrote Utopia which presented a revolutionary view of society. Executed for not compromising his religious beliefs.
"New Monarchs"

Renaissance
Monarchies that took measures to limit the power of the Roman Catholic Church within their countries.
Pazzi Conspiracy

Renaissance
Conspiracy to overthrow the Medici’s.
Petrarch

Renaissance
- (1304-1374) Father of the Renaissance. He believed the first two centuries of the Roman Empire to represent the peak in the development of human civilization.
Quattrocento

Renaissance
The 1400’s.
Cinquecento

Renaissance
The 1500’s.
Rabelais

Renaissance
French satirical author.Gargantua and Pantagruel
"Renaissance Man"

Renaissance
A man that is multitalented and is well educated.
Revival of antiquity

Renaissance
The awakening from the dark ages and the focusing on the Roman’s.
Friar Girolamo Savonarola

Renaissance
(1452-1498) Dominican friar who attacked paganism and moral vice of Medici and Alexander VI. Burned at the stake in Florence.
Secularism

Renaissance
The belief in material things instead of religious things.
Lorenzo Valla

Renaissance
(1406-1457) On Pleasure, and On false Donation of Constantine. Father of modern historical criticism.
Vernacular

Renaissance
Everyday language of a specific nation.
Virtu

Renaissance
The striving for excellence. Humanistic aspect of Renaissance.
Act of Supremacy

Reformation
Declared the king the supreme head of the Church of England.
Anglicanism

Reformation
Upholding to the teachings of the Church of England as defined by Elizabeth I.
John Calvin

Reformation
Theological writings profoundly influenced religious thoughts of Europeans. Developed Calvinism at Geneva. Wrote Institutes of Christian Religion
Consubstantiation

Reformation
The bread and wine undergo a spiritual change
Council of Trent

Reformation
Called by Pope Paul III to reform the church and secure reconciliation with the Protestants. Lutherans and Calvinists did not attend.
Thomas Cranmer

Reformation
Prepared the First Book of Common Prayer
Diet of Worms

Reformation
Assembly of the estates of the empire, called by Holy Roman Emperor Charles V.
Edict of Nantes

Reformation
1598 - Granted the Huguenots liberty of conscience and worship.
Excommunication

Reformation
When a person is kicked out of the Catholic church
Huguenots

Reformation
.French Calvinists.
John Huss

Reformation
Bohemian religious reformer whose efforts to reform the church eventually fueled the Protestant Reformation.
Ignatius Loyola

Reformation
Founded the Society of Jesus, resisted the spread of Protestantism, Spiritual Exercises
Indulgences

Reformation
Selling of these was common practice by the Catholic church, corruption that led to reformation.
The Institutes of Christian Religion

Reformation
Written by John Calvin
Jesuits

Reformation
Members of the Society of Jesus, staunch Catholics. Led by Loyola.
John Knox

Reformation
Dominated the movement for reform in Scotland. Had been taught in Geneva by Calvin.
Martin Luther

Reformation
95 Thesis, posted in 1517, led to religious reform in Germany, denied papal power and absolutist rule. Claimed there were only 2 sacraments: baptism and communion.
Simony

Reformation
The selling of church offices
Usury

Reformation
The practice of lending money for interest
Theocracy

Reformation
A community in which the state is subordinate to the church
Predestination

Reformation
Calvin's religious theory that God has already planned out a person's life.
Johann Tetzel

Reformation
The leading seller of Indulgences. Infuriated Luther.
Thomas Wolsey

Reformation
Cardinal, highest ranking church official and lord chancellor. Dismissed by Henry VIII for not getting the pope to annul his marriage to Catherine of Aragon.
John Wycliffe

Reformation
(c.1328-1384) Forerunner to the Reformation. Created English Lollardy. Attacked the corruption of the clergy, and questioned the power of the pope.
Ulrich Zwingli

Reformation
(1484-1531) Swiss reformer, influenced by Christian humanism. He looked to the state to supervise the church. Banned music and relics from services. Killed in a civil war.
Baroque

Reformation
Style in art and architecture developed in Europe from about 1550 to 1700, emphasizing dramatic, curving forms, elaborate ornamentation, and overall balance of disparate parts. Associated with Catholicism.
Defenestration of Prague

Reformation
The throwing of Catholic officials from a castle window in Bohemia. Started the Thirty Years' War.
Peace of Westphalia

Reformation
Treaty that ended the Thirty Years' War (1648) and readjusted the religious and political affairs of Europe.
St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre

Reformation
Mass slaying of Huguenots (Calvinists) in Paris, on Saint Bartholomew's Day, 1572.
War of the Three Henrys

Reformation
- French civil war because the Holy League vowed to bar Henri of Navarre from inheriting the French throne. Supported by the Holy League and Spain's Philip II, Henri of Guise battles Henri III of Valois and Henri of Navarre.
John Cabot

Exploration
Italian-born navigator explored the coast of New England, Nova Scotia, and Newfoundland. Gave England a claim in North America.
Pedro Cabral

Exploration
Claimed Brazil for Portugal
Entrepot

Exploration
Big commercial center for importing and exporting commodities.
Conquistadores

Exploration
Spanish 'conqueror' or soldier in the new World.
Bartholomew Diaz

Exploration
( 1487-1488) Portuguese, first European to reach the southern tip of Africa.
Sir Francis Drake

Exploration
English sea captain, robbed Spanish treasure ships; 'singed the king beard'; involved in the armada.
King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella

Exploration
Monarchs who united Spain; responsible for the reconquista.
Encomienda

Exploration
Indians were required to work a certain number of days for a land owner, but had their own land to work as well.
Vasco da Gama

Exploration
Sailed from Portugal for India.
Prince Henry the Navigator

Exploration
(1394-1460) Prince of Portugal who established an observatory and school of navigation at Sagres and directed voyages that spurred the growth of Portugal's colonial empire.
Ferdinand Magellan

Exploration
(1480?-1521) Portuguese navigator. While trying to find a western route to Asia, he was killed in the Philippines (1521). One of his ships returned to Spain (1522), thereby completing the first circumnavigation of the globe.
Northwest Passage

Exploration
A water route from the Atlantic to the Pacific through northern Canada and along the northern coast of Alaska. Sought by navigators since the 16th century.
Sir Walter Raleigh

Exploration
(1552?-1618) English courtier, navigator, colonizer, and writer. A favorite of Elizabeth I, he introduced tobacco and the potato to Europe. Convicted of treason by James I, he was released for another expedition to Guiana and executed after its failure.
Treaty of Tordesillas

Exploration
Set the Line of Demarcation which was a boundary established in 1493 to define Spanish and Portuguese possessions in the Americas.
Giovanni de Verrazano

Exploration
(1485?-1528?) Italian explorer of the Atlantic coast of North America.
Absolutism

Absolutism
When sovereignty is embodied in the person of the ruler.
Sovereignty

Absolutism
Possessing a monopoly over the instruments of justice.
Totalitarianism

Absolutism
Twentieth century phenomenon that seeks to direct all facets of a state’s culture in the interest of the state.
Cardinal Richelieu

Absolutism
Became President of the Council of ministers and the first minister of the French crown.
Louis XIII

Absolutism
Influenced by Richelieu to exult the French monarchy as the embodiment of the French state.
Fronde

Absolutism
1648-53. Brutal civil wars that struck France during the reign of Louis XIII.
Jules Mazarin

Absolutism
Became a cardinal in 1641, succeeded Richelieu and dominated the power in French government.
"Sun King"

Absolutism
Louis XIV had the longest reign in European history. Helped France to reach its peak of absolutist development.
Louis XIV

Absolutism
King of France who ruled as an absolute monarch, even as a child.
Jean-Babtiste Colbert

Absolutism
An advisor to Louis XIV who proved himself a financial genius who managed the entire royal administration.
Mercantilism

Absolutism
- The philosophy that a state's strength depends upon it wealth.
"French Classicism"

Absolutism
Art, literature, and advancements of the age of Louis XIV.
Nicholas Poussin

Absolutism
French classical painter who painted the Rape of the Sabine Women, known as the greatest French painter of the 17th century.
William of Orange

Absolutism
Dutch prince invited to be king of England after The Glorious Revolution. Joined League of Augsburg as a foe of Louis XIV.
Louis Pontchartrain

Absolutism
- French controller of finance who imposed the capitation of an annual poll tax.
Peace of Utrecht

Absolutism
- Ended Louis XIV’s attempts to gain military power and land. Marked the end of French expansionist policy. Ended the War of Spanish Succession.
Constitutionalism

Absolutism
Limitation of government by law, developed in times of absolutism.
Leviathan

Absolutism
Written by English philosopher Thomas Hobbes, maintained that sovereignty is ultimately derived from the people, who transfer it to the monarchy by implicit contract.
William Laude

Absolutism
Archbishop of Canterbury, tried to impose elaborate ritual and rich ceremonies on all churches. Insisted on complete uniformity of the church and enforced it through the Court of High Commission.
Oliver Cromwell

Absolutism
As Lord Protector of England he used his army to control the government and constituted military dictatorship.
The Restoration

Absolutism
Restored the English monarchy to Charles II, both Houses of Parliament were restored, established Anglican church, courts of law and local government.
John Locke

Absolutism
Believed people were born like blank slates and the environment shapes development, (tabula rasa). Wrote Essay Concerning Human Understanding, and Second Treatise of Government.
Thomas Hobbes

Absolutism
Leading secular exponent of absolutism and unlimited sovereignty of the state. Absolutism produced civil peace and rule of law. Tyranny is better than chaos. Claimed life was, "solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short."
Bill of Rights

Absolutism
1689, no law can be suspended by the king; no taxes raised; no army maintained except by parliamentary consent. Established after The Glorious Revolution.
New Model Army


Absolutism
Created by Cromwell.
Petition of Rights

Absolutism
Limited the power of Charles I of England. a) could not declare martial law; b) could not collect taxes; c) could not imprison people without cause; d) soldiers could not be housed without consent.
War of Austrian Succession

Eastern Absolutism
Conflict caused by the rival claims for the dominions of the Habsburg family. Before the death of Charles VI, Holy Roman emperor and archduke of Austria, many of the European powers had guaranteed that Charles's daughter Maria Theresa would succeed him.
Junkers

Eastern Absolutism
Members of the Prussian landed aristocracy, a class formerly associated with political reaction and militarism.
Pragmatic Sanction

Eastern Absolutism
Issued by Charles VI of Austria in 1713 to assure his daughter Maria Theresa gained the throne
Romanovs

Eastern Absolutism
Russian dynasty, started with Michael Romanov after the Time of Troubles and lasted until 1917.
Frederick William the Great Elector

Eastern Absolutism
First man who made modern Prussia.
Boyars

Eastern Absolutism
Land owning aristocracy in early Russia.
Dvorianie

Eastern Absolutism
Established by Peter the Great, they received land and control of the peasants.
Muscovy

Eastern Absolutism
- A former principality in west-central Russia. Centered on Moscow, it was founded c. 1280 and existed as a separate entity until the 16th century, when it was united with another principality to form the nucleus of the early Russian empire. The name was then used for the expanded territory.
Hohenzollern

Eastern Absolutism
German royal family who ruled Brandenburg from 1415 and later extended their control to Prussia (1525). Under Frederick I (ruled 1701-1713) the family's possessions were unified as the kingdom of Prussia.
Aristotelian World View

Scientific Revolution
Motionless earth was fixed at center of universe, God was beyond.
Francis Bacon

Scientific Revolution
(1561-1626)English politician, writer. Formalized the empirical method. Novum Organum. Inductive reasoning.
Tycho Brahe

Scientific Revolution
(1546-1601) Established himself as Europe's foremost astronomer of his day; detailed observations of new star of 1572.
Robert Boyle

Scientific Revolution
(1627-1691) Physicist, nothing can be known beyond all doubt.
Andrew Celsius

Scientific Revolution
Invented measurement of temperature - Celsius
Nicolaus Copernicus

Scientific Revolution
(1473-1543) Polish clergyman. Sun was the center of the universe; the planets went around it. On the Revolution of Heavenly Spheres. Destroyed Aristotle's view of the universe - heliocentric theory.
Heliocentric Theory

Scientific Revolution
Sun is the center of the universe. Coperican
Geocentric Theory

Scientific Revolution
- Earth is the center of the universe. Aristotelian
Descartes

Scientific Revolution
(1596-1650) French philosopher, discovered analytical geometry. Saw Algebra and Geometry have a direct relationship. Reduced everything to spiritual or physical.
Deductive Reasoning

Scientific Revolution
Descartes, doubt everything and use deductive reasoning. Reasoning based on facts. Combined with empiricism to create scientific method.
Inductive Reasoning

Scientific Revolution
Baconian empiricism. Based speculations on other situations.
Discourse on Methods

Scientific Revolution
Descartes (1677) espoused deductive reasoning.
Empiricism

Scientific Revolution
- Bacon's theory of inductive reasoning.
Gabriel Fahrenheit

Scientific Revolution
- Developed measurement of temperature with freezing at 32 degrees.
Galileo Galilei

Scientific Revolution
Created modern experimental method. Formulated the law of inertia. Tried for heresy and forced to recant. Saw Jupiter’s moons. Wrote Dialogue on the Two Chief Systems of the World
Gresham College

Scientific Revolution
Located in England. Leading place for the advancement of science. First time scientists had a honored roll in society; center of scientific activity.
William Harvey

Scientific Revolution
Englishman who announced blood circulates throughout the body.
Carl Linnaeus

Scientific Revolution
System Nature- developed methods to classify and name plants and animals.
Natural Law

Scientific Revolution
Universal law that could be understood by applying reason; letting people govern themselves.
Isaac Newton

Scientific Revolution
English scientist. 3 Laws of motion. Mathematics Principal of Natural Philosophy (1687).
Ptolemy’s System

Scientific Revolution
Last great ancient astronomer; there was a place for God. Complicated rules used to explain minor irregularities in the movement of the planets.
The Royal Society of London

Scientific Revolution
Established by Charles II in 1662; purpose to help the sciences.
Discourses on the Origins of Inequalities

Scientific Revolution
Rousseau, discuss the innocence of man and his corruption by society.
Voltaire

Scientific Revolution
French, perhaps greatest Enlightenment thinker. Deist. Mixed glorification and reason with an appeal for better individuals and institutions. Wrote Candide. Believed enlightened despot best form of government.
Deism

Scientific Revolution
God built the Universe and let it run. Clockmaker theory.
Enlightened despot

Scientific Revolution
- Enlightened ruler. Catherine the Great, Frederick the Great.
Humanitarianism

Scientific Revolution
Promoting human welfare and social reform.
Second Treatise of Government

Scientific Revolution
Written by Locke, Government created to protect life, liberty, and property.
Essay Concerning Human Understanding

Scientific Revolution
- Written by Locke, tabula rasa theory.
Rococo

Scientific Revolution
Art style that focuses on pastels, ornate interiors, and sentmental portraits.
The Spirit of Laws

Scientific Revolution
- Montesquieu, about separation of powers.
The Social Contract

Scientific Revolution
Rousseau, suggestions in reforming the political system and modeled after the Greek polis.
Candide

Scientific Revolution
Voltaire, satirizing society and organized religion in Europe.
Montesquieu

Scientific Revolution
French philosophe. Wrote The Spirit of Laws. Said "Power checks power". Separation of powers. Form of government varies according to climate.
Capitalism

Agricultural Revolution
Economic theory of maintaining balance of exports and imports. The opposite of socialism and communism.
Cosmopolitanism
Urban growth during the agricultural revolution. It dealt with the migration from rural to urban areas.
"General Will"
Betterment of the community. Founded by Rousseau, he felt that this determines a country's course in economics and politics.
William Hogarth
English painter. Marriage a la Mode.
"Natural History"
- Written by Buffon, discussed scientific matters.
Physiocrats
Opponents of mercantilism and Colbertism in particular. Led by Francois Quesnay. Felt the need for a strong independent republic
Adam Smith
Scottish professor of philosophy. Developed the idea of free enterprise, critical of mercantilism. Wrote Wealth of Nations Jethro Tull - English inventor advocated the use of horses instead of oxen. Developed the seed drill and selective breeding.
Enclosure movement
18th century English movement, marked the rise of market oriented estate.
Jean le Rond D’Alembert
coeditor of the Encyclopedie.
Assignats
- Paper currency, the French churches were used as collateral -the first French paper currency issued by the General Assembly.
Bastille
Medieval fortress that was converted to a prison stormed by peasants for ammunition during the early stages of the French Revolution.
Bougeoisie
Comfortable members of the 3rd estate. Basically middle class, wanted the privileges of the nobility and upper clergy.
Revolutionary Calendar
Created by the National Convention, it established after the French Revolution -day one was the first day of the French Republic
Committee of Public Safety
Established and led by Robespierre, fixed bread prices and nationalized some businesses. Basically secret police and also controlled the war effort. Instigated the Reign of Terror.
Conspiracy of Equals
Led by "Gracchus" Babeuf an attempt to renew violent rebellion after the Thermidore reaction,-communistic in nature.
Consulate
Form of government which followed the directory -established by Napoleon-ended when Napoleon was crowned emperor.
National Convention
The third estate of the Estates General -broke from the Estates because they wanted the Estates to sit as a committee and not as segregated groups.
Danton
Led the Mountains with Robespierre-also executed with Robespierre.
David
Napoleon’s painter-painted the famous portrait of Napoleon’s coronation.
Declaration of the Rights of Man
Written by the National Convention -declared all men could do anything as long as it did not harm others.
Directory
Group of five men who served as liaisons between Robespierre and the Assembly. Overthrown by Napoleon.
Encyclopedie
Collection of works compiled during the Enlightenment -explained many aspects of society.
Estates General
Not called since 1614-finally called by Louis XVI at the advice of his financial minister-demanded control over the King’s finances -he refused and dismissed them-sat as three segregated groups.
Gabelle
Tax on salt during pre-revolutionary France-included in the Estate’s list of grievances.
Girondists
One of the two halves of the divided National Convention
Great Fear
Followed the storming of the Bastille-people were scared of outlaws and reprisals-fanned flames of rebellion.
Guillotine
Fast and relatively humane-used for mass executions.
Intendants
Created by Napoleon-kept watch over their own area of France -allowed Napoleon not to have to worry about petty problems.
Levee en Masse
Law that obligated all French men between certain ages to enlist in the army.
Louis XVI
King of France-executed for treason by the National Convention-absolute monarch-husband of Marie Antoinette.
Marie Antoinette
Louis XVI’s wife -executed.
Robespierre
Member of the National Assembly-led the Mountains-began and led the Committee of Public Safety-began the Reign of Terror.
Sans-culottes
Petty laborers and laboring poor-wore pants not knee breeches-became a major political group in revolutionary France.
Tennis Court Oaths
Taken by the National Assembly-stated that they would not disband until they had made a new constitution. Met here because they were unable to go to their meeting place.
First Estate
Clergy.
Second Estate
Nobility.
Third Estate
Artisans etc. Everyone not in the First or Second Estate.
Thermidorean Reaction
A reaction against the violence of the Reign of Terror. Robespierre was executed.
Ancien Regime
The old order before the Revolution in France
Regicide
The killing of the king
Versailles
Site of palace outside Paris. Women marched there to demand action from Louis XVI.
Mary Wollstonecraft
Wrote Vindication of the Rights of Man and A Vindication of the Rights of Women.
Berlin Decree
1806-issued by Napoleon, instituted the Continental System, in the response to British blockade of commercial ports under French control.
Joseph Bonaparte
Napoleon's brother, made king of Spain but unable to control the Spanish which led to the costly Peninsula War.
Confederation of the Rhine
League of German States organized by Napoleon in 1813 after defeating the Austrians at Austerlitz. The league collapsed after Napoleon's defeat in Russia.
Continental System
(1806-12)French economic plan to cripple Britain. Russia's refusal to conform led to the Russian campaign.
The Grand Army
Combined French armies under Napoleon. Virtually destroyed during Napoleon's ill-fated Russian campaign.
Louis XVIII
- (1814-24) tried to issue a Constitutional Charter which accepted many revolutionary changes and guaranteed civil liberties
Napoleonic Code -
Passed by Napoleon. Took away many of the rights gained by women, aimed at reestablihing the "family monarchy". Modified after Napoleon's defeat.
Peninsula War
France was forced to invade Spain after the failure of Joseph Bonaparte. Very costly for Napoleon. The Duke of Wellington helped the Spanish.
Plebiscite
A vote of the people.
Rosetta Stone
Found by one of Napoleon's officers during the Egyptian campaign. Allowed people to decipher hieroglyphics.
Talleyrand -
French representative at the Congress of Vienna and limited the demands of other countries upon the French.
Saint Helena
- South Atlantic island. Napoleon's final home after the Battle of Waterloo.
Trafalgar
(October 1805) Britain's Admiral Nelson destroyed the combined French and Spanish navies. Nelson was killed but invasion of Britain now became impossible.
Metternich
Austrian foreign minister who basically controlled the Congress of Vienna. Wanted to promote peace, conservatism, and the repression of libaral nationalism throughout Europe.
Castlereagh
British representative at Congress of Vienna.
The Hundred Days
The time from Napoleon's return from exile on Elba to defeat at Waterloo.
Sir Richard Arkwright
Invented water frame at almost the same time as the spinning jenny was invented.
Jeremy Bentham
Believed that public problems should dealt with on a rational scientific basis. Believed in the idea of the greatest good for the greatest number. Wrote, Principles of Morals and Legislation.
Edmund Cartwright
Inventor of the modern power loom.
Chartism
Agitation against poor laws-working class discontent.
Combination Acts
1799 and 1800-made trade unionism illegal.
The Communist Manifesto
Pamphlet written by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels-basis of Socialism
Corn Laws-
1815 tariff on imported grain to protect domestic producers. Never worked well.
Henry Cort
- Refined pig iron-puddling furnace-heavy rolling mills
Benjamin Disraeli
British Conservative-extended vote to all middle class male workers, needed to broaden aristocratic voter base.
Friedrich Engels
- Condition of Working Class in England- society’s problems caused by capitalism and competition. Colleague of Karl Marx.
Factory Act 1833
Created factory worday for children between 9-13 to 8 hours a day. Not applicable to home. Outlawed child labor under 9-factory owners establish schools. Destroyed family unit.
Charles Fourier
French social theorist-criticized capitalism-wanted socialist utopia and emancipation of women. Theory of Four Movements.
James Hargreaves
About 1705 invented spinning jenny
Industrialization
New inventions, cotton and iron-changed small businesses beyond all recognition.
John Kay -
Inventor of flying shuttle, (1733).
Laissez-faire capitalism -
Minimal governmental interference in the economic affairs. Adam Smith and Francois Quesnay.
Karl Marx
German - father of socialism-emancipation of women-Communist Manifesto.
Thomas Newcomen
1705 invented steam engine that used coal, very inefficient.
Robert Owen
Scottish spoke out about hiring children. Created mills in New Harmony.
Henry Palmerston
- Hawkish English Foreign Minister during revolutions of 1848.
A People’s Charter
Draft of reform Bill which called for universal suffrage payment of members of Parliament and annual elections-6 main points.
Poor Law
1834, Gave some aid to the poor, but not very helpful against unemployment. Very favorable to employers.
First Reform Bill
1832, Modified the old political system by easing voting qualifications (but still not easy to qualify!). Abolished some smaller boroughs.
Second Reform Bill
1867, Conservatives and Liberals trying to gain votes. Disraeli's Conservatives extended the vote to almost 1 million more voters.
Tory
Political party in Britain controlled by aristocracy.
Utopian Socialism
Ideal society based on socialist ideals-Louis Blanc and Charles Fourier
James Watt
Added a condenser to Newcomen's steam engine to make it more efficient. Led to steam becoming a viable source of power.
Whig
British party more responsive to commercial and manufacturing interests.
Alexander II
- (r.1855-81)Emperor of Russia; advocated moderate reforms for Russia; emancipated the serfs; he was assassinated.
Ausgleich, 1867
Refers to the compromise of 1867 which created the dual monarchy of Austria and Hungary.
"Blood and iron"
Refers to Prussian tactics brought about by Otto von Bismarck; his unification of Germany was through a policy of "blood and iron".
Bundesrat
The federal council of Austrian government.
Count Camillo Cavour
Endorsed the economic doctrines of the middle class. Worked for a secret alliance with Napoleon III against Austria. Worked to unite Italy.
Carbonari
A secret society; designated to overthrow Bonapartist rulers; they were liberal patriots.
Carlsbad Decrees
1819, it discouraged liberal teachings in southern Germany. Censorship imposed by Metternich.
Constitutional monarchy
Monarch rules with limitations by the constitution; written or unwritten.
Ems Dispatch
A message from William I of Prussia to Napoleon III which brought France into the Franco Prussian war.
Franco-Prussian War
1870-71, war between France and Prussia; seen as German victory; seen as a struggle of Darwinism; led to Prussia being the most powerful European nation. Instigated by Bismarck; France seen as the aggressor.
Frankfurt Assembly -
1807-82; personified the romantic revolutionary nationalism. Attempted to unify Germany.
Giuseppe Garibaldi
(1807-82) An Italian radical who emerged as a powerful independent force in Italian politics. He planned to liberate the Two Kingdoms of Sicily.
Louis Kossuth
Leader of the Hungarians, demanded national autonomy with full liberties and universal suffrage in 1848.
Leopold II
1865-1909; King of Belgium, sent Henry Stanley to Africa.
Liberalism
The base ideas of liberty & equality.
Magyars
In 1867 the Hungarian nobility restored the constitution of 1848 and used it to dominate both the Magyar peasantry & the minority population.
Giuseppe Mazzini
Italy idealistic patriot; preached a centralized democratic republic based on universal suffrage and the will of the people.
Nationalism
Pride in one's nation, group, or traditions; a desire for independence.
Napoleon III
Original Napoleon’s nephew; consolidated conservative government and the ideals of nationalism.
Panslavism
A movement to promote the independence of Slav people. Roughly started with the Congress in Prague; supported by Russia. Led to the Russo-Turkish War of 1877.
Pogroms
- Persecution of minorities, especially the Jews in Russia.
Realpolitik
Political theory, advocated by Bismarck, that national success justifies any means possible. Very Machiavellian
Red Shirts
Volunteers in Garibaldi's army
Reichstag
Popularly elected parliament in Germany. Very little power.
Russification
Policy imposing Russian customs and traditions on other people.
Syllabus of Errors
1864. Pope Pius IX denounced rationalism, socialism, and separation of church and state.
Treaty of Frankfurt
The end of the Franco-Prussian War. Alsace and Lorraine given to Germany.
Otto von Bismarck
(1815-1898) Prussian chancellor who engineered the unification of Germany under his rule.
Zemstvos
Local assemblies in Russia.
Zollverein
Economic custom union of German states, founded in 1818 by Prussia. Eliminated internal tariffs.
Risorgimento
Italian period of history from 1815 to1850.
Grossdeutsch
- Great German Party at the Frankfurt Assembly. "Big Germans".
Kleindeutsch
Little German Party at the Frankfurt Assembly. "Little Germans".
Volksgeist
Idea created by J.G. Herder to identify the national character of Germany, but soon passed to other countries.
Algeciras Conference
Conference provoked Germany backfired on Germany over the issues of the Morocco crisis.
Imperialism
One who dominates the political, social, and economic life of another.
Belgian Congo
exploited by Leopold II at Belgium under the Berlin Act, Leopold was supposed to act as a trustee. He violated the agreement and stripped the country of its resources.
Boer War
English vs. Dutch settlers in South Africa. England won 1899-02, showed that English tactics were no good.
East India Company
Dutch trading company worried about colonizing the world.
Congress of Berlin
Assembly of representatives of Germany, Russia, Hungary, Britain, France, Italy, and the Ottoman Empire.
Fashoda Incident
Conflict in Africa between France and Britain.
Cecil Rhodes
- Born in 1853, played a major political and economic role in colonial South Africa. He was a financier, statesman, and empire buildRelationship between 2 states in which the stronger state guarantees to protect the weaker state from external aggression in return for full or partial control of its domestic and foreign affairs.er with a philosophy of mystical imperialism.
Protectorate
Relationship between 2 states in which the stronger state guarantees to protect the weaker state from external aggression in return for full or partial control of its domestic and foreign affairs.
Sphere of Influence
- In international politics, the claim by a state to exclusive or predominant control over a foreign area or territory.
The White Man’s Burden
1899, Rudyard Kipling's poem, "The White Man's Burden," critical about imperialism.
Heart of Darkness
Joseph Conrad, 1902. The story reflects the physical and psychological shock Conrad himself experienced in 1890, when he worked briefly in the Belgian Congo.
Balkan Wars
Serbia, Greece, Bulgaria took Macedonia from the Ottomans in 1912. Serbia then fought Bulgaria in the second Balkan War in 1913 Austria intervened to stop the war.
Berlin Conference, 1885
- Laid down the rules for the conquest of Africa: 1) European countries holding a coast inland. 2) Occupation must be with real troops 3) Must give notice of which countries were occupied. 4) Started the scramble for Africa.
Black Hand
Ultra Nationalist, Serbian Society. Secretly supported by members of the Serbian government.
Conscription
Forced recruitment into the army to meet the needs of war.
Charles I
(1887-1922) - Last Austrian Emperor abdicated Nov. 1918. The next day Austria was declared a Republic as was Hungary
Entente Cordial
Britain gained control of Egypt. France gained control of Morocco. But not a written alliance only and agreement. Basically against Germany.
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
heir to the Austria-Hungarian throne, was assassinated in Sarajevo, started World War I.
David Lloyd George -
????
Isolationism
Not becoming involved in global or regional events.
Joseph Joffre
French general led the French at the Battle of the Marne.
Kaiser Wilhelm II
Germany. Dismissed Bismarck in 1890. Did not renew Bismarck’s treaty with Russia and "Forced" Russia to look for another ally, France.
Kruger Telegram
William II sent Kruger of the Transvaal a congratulatory telegram upon hearing of the failure of the Jamison Raid. Alerted Britain of the dangers from Germany
V. I. Lenin
Believed in Marxist Socialism: 1) Believed capitalism must be destroyed. 2) A social revolution was possible in backward Russia. 3) The need for highly trained workers partly controlled by revolutionaries like himself.
League of Nations
Allies worked out terms for peace with Germany, 1919, precursor to the United Nations.
Lusitania
Sunk in 1915 by a German submarine. 139 American killed. Forced Germany to stop submarine warfare.
Battle of the Marne
A major French victory against the invading German army at the start of WWI. In reality lost Germany the war.
Morocco Crisis, 1911
After the French received Morocco, Germany demanded an international conference- German bullying forced England and France closer. Germany gained nothing.
Nicholas II
the last tsar. Wanted supreme rule of army and government. Led the armies to defeat. Forced to abdicate in 1917 by the Duma.
Gavrilo Princip
The assassin of Archduke Francis Ferdinand of Austria, a member of the Black Hand
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
Treaty between Bolsheviks and Germans to get Russia out of the war. 1) Russia lost 1/3 of her population. 2) height of German success in WWI. Signed by Lenin.
Treaty of Versailles
Negotiated by the Big Three Germany was stripped of colonies Alsace and Loraine given back to France. Poland was reconstituted as a state. Polish corridor would split Prussia from Germany. The Saar region would be French for 15 years. Heavy repercussions (not specified until later.)
Battle of Verdun -
1916 German assault on the French fortress- turned into a battle of attrition France won.
Triple Entente
1914, Great Britain, France, and Russia.
Wilson’s Fourteen Points
President Wilson’s Peace proposal in 1918 stressed national self-determination and the rights of the small countries. Freedom of the seas and free trade. Clemenceau said, "God only had ten."
Woodrow Wilson
U.S. President, who led USA into WWI. He proposed the 14 points. He attended the peace conference at Versailles.
Zimmerman Telegram
German Arthur Zimmerman sent a telegram to the German minister in Mexico City telling him to promise the Mexican President German help if Mexico went to war with the U.S. the telegram was intercepted and decoded by the British, shocked the American public.
Army Order #1
Issued by the Petrograd Soviet shipped offices of their authority and placed the power in the hands of elected committees of common soldiers.
Bloody Sunday
Russia 1905 Russian soldiers inadvertently opened fire on demonstrators, turning them against the tsar. Possibly the start of the Revolution.
Bolsheviks
"Majority group"
Cheka
Secret police set up by Lenin-arrested "enemies of the revolution".
Decembrist Revolt
Uprising in Russia mainly soldiers soon suppressed-first manifestation of the modern revolutionary movement inspired by ideology.
Fyodor Dostoevsky
Russian novelist.
Duma
Popular parliament.
Fundamental Laws
Issued by the Russian Government in 1906. The tsar retained great power. The Duma was elected by universal male suffrage. The Upper House could pass laws but the Tsar had veto power.
Alexander Kerensky
Headed the Provisional Government in 1917. Refused to redistribute confiscated landholdings to the peasants. Thought fighting the war was a national duty.
General Kornilov
Wanted to be the savior of Russia. Tried to stage a coup-demanded the resignation of all ministers Kerensky ordered him to turn over command. But soldiers refused to follow him.
Kronstadt Revolt
Rebellion of previously loyal sailors at the naval base. Suppressed by the military. After the revolt Lenin introduced the N.E.P.
March Revolution
Bolsheviks become the leaders of Russia.
Mensheviks
'Minority group'.
Mir -
Peasant village assembly responsible to the government
October Manifesto
Issued in Russia because of fear of a general strike. Granted full civil rights and a popular parliament- Duma.
"Peace, Bread, and Land"
Lenin’s slogan in the Revolution. Peace from the war; Land for the peasants; Food for all.
Anschluss -
The annexation of Austria by Germany in 1938.
Anti-Comintern Pact
Between Hitler and Japan; offered security against Russia.
Atlantic Charter
August 1941; called for peace without territorial expansion or secret agreements, and for free elections, and self - determination for all liberated nations.
Casablanca Conference
Resolved to accept nothing less than unconditional surrender of Axis powers.
Neville Chamberlain
1938; gullible British Prime Minister; declared that Britain and France would fight if Hitler attacked Poland.
Winston Churchill
1874 to 1965; greatest wartime leader; rallied the British with his speeches, infectious confidence, and bulldog determination; known for his "iron curtain" speech; led the British during World War II; agreed Hitler should be conquered; was thrown out by his own people.
D-Day
June 6, 1944; Americans and British forces under General Dwight Eisenhower landed on the beaches of Normandy; this was history’s greatest naval invasion.
Battle of Stalingrad
Turning point for Germany in the war
Edouard Daladier
French leader of the radical socialists; accepted Hitler’s terms for peace.
Francisco Franco
Spanish General; organized the revolt in Morocco, which led to the Spanish Civil War. Leader of the Nationalists - right wing, supported by Hitler and Mussolini, won the Civil War after three years of fighting.
Lebensaum
Room to move. Phrase used by Hitler to justify invasion of other countries.
Lend-Lease Program
1941, the US lent money and resources to the European states to help reconstruction.
Maginot Line
- Line of defense built by France to protect against German invasion. Stretched from Belgium to Switzerland.
Munich Conference
1938; Chamberlain, France and other countries (not the USSR); they agreed that Sudentenland should be ceded to Germany; Chamberlain secured peace with Germany.
Pacificism
Anabaptists laid great stress on this; they would not run for office or serve in the armed forces; not being involved in many wars.
Potsdam Conference
Brought forward many differences over east Europe; postwar conference in July of 1945; Stalin would not allow any type of freely elected government in east European countries; Roosevelt had died and was succeeded by Harry Truman, who demanded free elections.
Rome-Berlin Axis -
1936; close cooperation between Italy and Germany, and soon Japan joined; resulted from Hitler; who had supported Ethiopia and Italy, he overcame Mussolini’s lingering doubts about the Nazis.
Erwin Rommel
"Desert Fox"-May 1942; German and Italian armies were led by him and attacked British occupied Egypt and the Suez Canal for the second time; were defeated at the Battle of El Alamein; was moved to France to oversee the defenses before D-Day; tried to assassinate Hitler.
Russo-German Nonaggression Pact
Hitler and Stalin promised to remain neutral if either country were to become involved in war; August 1939. Was supposed to last 10 years, but Hitler invaded Russia in 1941.
Joseph Stalin
Communist statesman; leader of Bolshevik Party; became ruler of USSR after Lenin; assumed full military and political leadership.
Sudetenland -
Hitler wanted German speaking people in West Czech; this would be given to Germany.
Teheran Conference
Meeting in 1943; Stalin, Roosevelt, Churchill; confirmed their defense to crush Hitler.
Yalta Conference
On the Black Sea; the Big Three met in February 1945 in southern Russia; it was agreed that Germany would be divided into zones of occupation and would pay heavy reparations to the soviet Union in the form of agricultural and industrial goods; when the Big Three met in 1945 at Yalta in southern Russia they agreed that east European governments were to be freely elected but pro-soviet.
Konrad Adenauer
Chancellor of Germany in 1949; the former mayor of Cologne and a long-time anti-Nazi, who began his long highly successful democratic rule; West Germany had a majority of Christian Democrats; helped regain respect for Germany
Clement Attlee
Socialist Labor Party under him moved toward establishment of a "Welfare State"; formed government of England after Churchill; nationalized industries.
Willy Brandt
West German chancellor; sought peace with East Germany; went to Poland in December 1970; laid a wreath at the tomb of the unknown soldier and another monument commemorating the armed uprising of Warsaw's Jewish ghetto against Nazi armies after which the ghetto was destroyed and survivors were sent to the gas chambers
Brezhnev Doctrine
Soviet Union and its allies had the right to intervene in any socialist country whenever they saw the need.
Brinkmanship
International relations involving the deliberate creation of a risk of war to apply pressure on the other party.
COMECON
The economic association organized by the communist states
Containment
Attempt to contain communism in areas already occupied by the Red Army as indicated in the Truman Doctrine.
Council of Europe
Brought about by the Marshall Plan in 1948 as an attempt to evolve into a Parliament yet became only a multinational debating society.
Charles De Gaulle
Leader of Free French General that resigned in 1946 after re-establishing the free, democratic Fourth Republic.
de-Stalinization
Liberalization of the Soviet Union.
Anthony Eden
Opposed Chamberlain’s policy of appeasement towards Hitler. Became Prime minister in 1955, resigned in 1957.
Ludwig Erhard
Minister of the economy, bet on the free economy while maintaining the extensive social welfare network inherited from the Hitler era.
Euratom
European Atomic Energy Community established by the treaty of Rome to regulate and research nuclear energy merged with the EEC.
European Coal and Steel Community
international organization to control and integrate all European coal and steel production. Consisted of West Germany, Italy, Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg, and France. Number 1 goal to be so close together economically that war against them impossible. "The six".
European Economic Community
caused by the Marshall Plan.
Hungarian Revolution
1956. Led by students and workers, installed Liberal Communist Imre Nagy. Forced soviet soldiers to leave and promised free election, renounced Hungary’s military alliance with Moscow. Revolution was crushed by the Soviet Union.
"Inner Six"
members of the EEC.
Iron Curtain Speech
March 1946 Winston Churchill at Fulton College Missouri; said an "iron curtain" had fallen across the Continent.
Nikita Khrushchev -
Russian premier after Stalin. Led de-Stalinization of Russia. A reformer who argued for major innovations.
Marshall Plan
U.S. Secretary of State George C. Marshall urged Americans to offer economic aide- this was the Marshall Plan. Refused by Stalin.
Imre Nagy
liberal communist reformer installed as Chief by the people of Budapest.
NATO
North Atlantic Treaty Organization- formed in 1949 by U.S. anti-Soviet Military alliance of Western Governments.
"peaceful coexistence"
Krushev’s foreign policy; peaceful coexistence with communism was possible.
Schuman Plan
called for special international organization to control and integrate all European coal and steal production.
Treaty of Rome
Six nations of Coal and Steal Community signed to create EEC
Warsaw Pact
Created by Stalin to counter NATO and to tighten his hold on satellites.
Perestroika
Economic restructuring by Gorbachev
Glasnost
A newfound openness of government and media.
restalinization
Soviet Union started a period of stagnation. Saw de-Stalinization as a dangerous threat.