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88 Cards in this Set

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catastrophism
belief that changes to the earths surface happened all at once (relative-6,000 years) in violent geographic processes
fossils-
formation
mineral replacement of organic material: happens slow in
fossils-
incomplete record
works best for creatures with hard parts (they fossilize best) with rapid burial to prevent decomposition
biogeography
the study of the world distribution of organisms
comparative anatomy
study of the differences in body plans of different mammals, reptiles, and other major groups
Darwin's beliefs
natural selection

over time individuals with longer necks survived better, so necks persisted (giraffe)
Lamarck's beliefs
individual giraffe's neck stretched as it reached for higher food

changes happen as needed
natural selection
when more individuals are born than can survive, and all individuals are different, characteristics that allow better survival persist in the population
population
members of the species capable of breeding
polymorphism
a trait with two or more distinct variations
morphological
traits
anatomy, structure
physiological traits
metabolism, respiration, biochemical at the cellular level
behavioral traits
behaviors
gene pool
all the alleles/genetic material shared in a population; no single individual has all
allele frequencies
the abundance of each kind of allele in the population
microevolution
small scale changes in allele frequencies
genetic equilibrium
*see hardy-wineberg
frequencies of alleles for a given gene remain the same

only when the 5 conditions are met
mutation rate
probability of gene mutation, which is the only source for new alleles
neutral mutation
neither helps nor harms an individual
lethal mutation
usually causes individual's death
Hardy-Weinberg Rule
p^2+2pq+q^2=1 and p+q=1

when 1)large population

2)all individuals survive and reproduce

3)mating is random

4)there is no genetic mutation

5)no genetic drift/gene flow
fitness
greater adaptation to the environment
directional selection
one of the extreme forms of an allele is favored, usually caused by environmental change
stabilizing selection
intermediate forms of the allele are favored
disruptive selection
intermediate forms of the allele are not favored
sexual selection
he who leaves more offspring wins -
produce offspring that are capable of reproducing

whatever traits you have causing that will persist
gene flow
immigration or emigration
genetic drift
shit happens, larger effect on small populations

change in frequency due to random events
founder effect
small group within a population moves to a different area, doesn't represent the population's alleles
bottleneck
vast majority of the individuals are wiped out, doesn't reflect population's allels
pest resurgence
happens when insects are able to survive a pesticide and rebound to cause crop damage
antibiotics
metabolic products of certain microorganisms that can kill bacteria
sexual dimorphism
distinctly male or female trait
balanced polymorphism
allele type that persists, such as sickle-cell anemia allele that prevents malaria in heterozygotes
fixation
only one allele for a gene remains
inbreeding
non-random mating among closely related individuals

leads to problems
biological species concept
species are interbreeding groups of natural populations that are reproductively isolated from other such groups
reproductive isolating mechanisms
any heritable feature that prevents breeding from one or more genetically divergent species
allopatric speciation
geographic separation or physical distance isolates groups
sympatric speciation
same location but pre-zygotic isolation

something prevents mating
polyploidy
nondisjunction leads to different chromosome number

best way to create a new species

works best in plants who can self fertilize
parapatric speciatioin (hybrid zone)
fairly motile species with large population but vast area.

One group stays in one are and other group stays in another area. Hybrid zone where some come in contact in the middle.
archipelago
a chain of islands close to the mainland
gradual model of speciation
slow continuous change
punctuated model of speciation
all at once change

short (1000-100 yrs) catastrophic environmental change where one genetic makeup fares better than another
adaptive radiation
happens on isolated islands with few types of species

multiple new species occur to fill empty niches
cladogenesis
branching pattern of speciation
anagenesis
changes in frequencies and morphology but an unbranched line of descent
key innovations
novel new modifications like the wing
background extinction
expected rate of disappearance as local conditions change
mass extinction
catastrophic event in which everybody dies off
macroevolution
large scale patterns of change of groups of species
lineages
lines of descent
pre-zygotic isolation

temporal
times of breeding are different
pre-zygotic isolation

behavorial
don't recognize the mating call, so mating never happens
pre-zygotic isolation

mechanical
tab A doesn't fit into slot B

physical incompatibilities
pre-zygotic isolation

ecological
different microenvironments close together but species choose not to move into each others' zones
stratification
the layering of sedimentary deposits
comparative morphology
anatomical comparisons of major lineages
homologies
same structure, like number of fingers, coming from a common ancestor, but functions are different
analogies
different ancestors

evolved under the same environmental pressures to yield the same functions (penguins, sharks, and dolphins)
morphological convergence
non related lineages evolve in the same direction in response to a common environment
morphological divergence
populations of the same species diverge considerably in appearance and functions after a long time of separationg
molecular clock
regular rate of neutral mutations in genetic material allows comparison of different species to find how closely related they are
DNA-DNA hybridization
two strands are stuck together, how well they stick depends on their common base pairs
taxonomy
field of biology concerned with identifying, naming and classifying species
binomial system
genus then specific name,

in latin formulated by Linnaeus
classification schemes
organized ways of retrieving information about a particular species
higher taxa
more inclusive groupings to reflect relationships among species
phylogeny
evolutionary relationships between species based on what are to be perceived as the most ancestral forms
derived trait
novel feature that evolved only once and is shared among descendants
cladograms
tree diagrams showing relative relationships
evolutionary systematics
applies evolutionary theory to identify patterns of diversity over time and through the environment
six kingdom system
eubacteria

archaebacteria

protista

fungi

plantae

animalia
three domain classification
eubacteria

archaebacteria

eukaryotes (everything else)
stromatolites
calcium deposits caused by early anaerobic eubacteria
endosymbiosis
one species lives permanently inside another

theory for origin of mitochondria, which has some of its own dna and ribosomes
ediacarans
odd organisms chaped like fronds, disks, and blobs that nearly defy classification
primates
prosimians, tarsoids and anthropoids
anthropoids
humans apes and monkeys
hominoids
apes and humans
hominids
humans and their extinct ancestors
climate changes leading to humans
wet rainforest tree climate dried out to become more arid with open savannas
physical changes
1)Daytime vision

2)Upright walking-bipedalism

3)power grip and precision grip-for tool use

4)rounded teeth with molars, incisors, and canines for all occasions

5)brain changes-increase in cortex size allowing language, higher level abstract thinking, and culture
australopiths
4-4.5 mya

early upright walkers
H. Habilis
first of the homo to use tools
Homo erectus
2 mya first to use fire

most closely related to modern humans
H Sapien
cro magnons in Europe

100,000 years