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105 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
A belief in multilinear evolution implies Eurocentric or racist assumptions:
The best metaphor to use in describing a wide variety of cultural systems and the way they developed is that of a branching tree:
Big Men are charismatic leaders, clever entrepreneurs, who demand a loyalty that is often transitory, generally lasting but one generation.
Relationships between people and the land were closely linked to kin groups and kin ancestors:
Kinship is unimportant in institutions of hereditary clans and lineages:
Individuals who controlled exchange networks or supplies of key necessities and luxuries became natural leaders of newly complex village communities:
Village leaders were rarely shamans because their extraordinary supernatural powers made them suspect:
The political systems of these early permanent settlements were rarely volatile because of the continuity in leadership and the acceptance of cultural tradition:
Evidence for egalitarianism among early farmers includes uniform grave goods:
Unlike other areas, agricultural surpluses were not necessary to sustain powerful Polynesian chiefdoms – only maritime resources were required:
Polynesian chiefs acquired power and prestige by controlling and redistributing wealth and food supplies:
Growing out of large sweet potato surpluses, which created wealth and social complexity, and then intense competition and war, the Maori people eventually made institutionalized warfare a key element of their society:
Maize, beans, and squash agriculture came into the southwest from Mexico:
The Hokoham people were desert farmers in the southwest who used irrigations and caches of rainwater runoff to grow their crops:
The Mogollan and Ancestral Pueblo people of the desert Southwest usually irrigated their crops, rarely relying on direct rainfall:
Dendrochronology is only used to determine time in the American Southwest:
The Adena believed in burying everyone in log-lined tombs, smearing their corpses with red ocher and graphite, and placing goods in each grave:
The great mounds and plazas of Cahokia dominated the landscape for miles, even as their leaders dominated trade across a wide area:
The center of the Hopewell culture was _______________:
Mound City
Diverse environmental and cultural circumstances produce:
A very wide range of social complexity
Social and political change in farming communities developed from:
The need to live in small sedentary settlements, close to land
A critical factor of chiefdoms is:
Reciprocal obligation
Village leaders were expected to _______________ their followers:
In communities where “Big Men” ruled, leadership was:
Pacific navigators passed knowledge from generation to generation by:
Word of mouth
Prerequisites for long ocean journeys included:
Root vegetables, small transportable animals, and seaworthy sailing craft
The institutionalization or warfare in Maori New Zealand is thought to relate to the introduction of _________________ after 1400 A.D. which generated agricultural surpluses overpopulation, and warlike competition:
Sweet potatoes
Chaco canyon was an important ceremonial center for the _________________ people:
Ancestral Pueblo
A prolonged drought in the American Southwest took place in the last quarter of the _____________________ century:
The earliest North American culture to build extensive earthworks was the _______________ culture:
The center of the Hopewell culture was:
Mound City
The ceremonial complex of mounds and plazas in Cahokia covered more than _______________ hectares:
Maize and beans comprised as much as _______________ % of the diet of the people of Moundville around 1250 A.D.
The housing complexes of the Ancestral Pueblo could hold no more than:
1000-2500 people
Pre-industrialized state societies can be identified by:
Core characteristics and monumental architecture
Areas of early state formation included:
Nile valley, Mesopotamia, and regions of China
The Andean Incas used _______________ for their formal record keeping:
Knotted strings
In the ancient world, cities could have populations as small as _______________ people:
Cities provided ________________ to hinterland and in return received _______________:
Specialized services, food
The social complexity of a city can be grasped once one realizes its inhabitants included the young, the hold, the poor, the rich, men, women, _______________, _______________, and _______________:
Specialized craftsmen, laborers and a ruling elite
In cities, centralized institutions have the _______________ to insure public safety and regulate internal affairs:
An essential element of Childe’s Urban Revolution theory was technology and the development of _______________:
Craft specialization
Individuals who believed irrigation was a catalyst for the organizations of state societies cited evidence from Egypt, Mesopotamia, _______________ and _______________:
China and India
Robert Cameiro’s theory of state formation on the Peruvian coast gave _______________ a key role:
Wilson’s work on _______________ sites showed the over simplification of models for the origin of state civilizations based on endemic warfare.
The most striking difference between states and non-state societies is not their _______________:
Decision making procedures
In Kent Flannery’s view, states were _______________ whose internal differentiation and the intricacy of its subsystems were a measure of its complexity.
Complicated living systems
William Sanders suggests that _______________ were decisive in areas where civilization began.
Environmental factors
Mesopotamia and Maya territory can be defined in _______________ terms, not in political terms since they were never politically unified.
From an ideological perspective, Mayan cities like Copán and Tikal can be thought of possessing sacred _______________:
Symbolic landscapes
Competing views or _______________ is an accompaniment to any dominant ideology:
Colin Renfrew’s concept of _______________ is a step in the analysis of intangible facets of past cultures.
Archaeology of the mind
Moche, Egyptian, Babylonian, or Mayan _______________ are visual reminders of a state’s ideology, reinforcing the power of supreme rulers and their special relationships to the gods and the spiritual world.
Art styles
Joseph Tainter suggest that the collapse of civilizations should be considered _______________:
An economizing process
Trade requires two things:
Goods and people
One aspect of trade accompanying the development of the state was:
A change from redistribution of to market economy trade
Archaeologists often refer to trade as:
Redistribution is controlled by:
Chiefs, religious leaders, or kin groups
The far flung market economy of Minoan civilization:
Consisted primarily of impersonal trade
State-organized societies invariably include and urban component:
Rulers in state societies served only to collect tribute and taxation:
Both large scale irrigation and extensive long distance trade are a result of civilization:
New data shows that small communities were fully capable of carrying out small-scale irrigation projects without state supervision or subsidies:
The evidence suggests that Gordon Childe’s inclusion of metallurgy as an important part of urbanization was correct:
Institutional warfare was one of the causes of civilization:
In contrast to state societies, cities usually have a high archaeology visibility:
The settlement pattern of cities in all pre-industrialized societies was essentially the same:
Archaeologists use a basic set of traits to distinguish pre-industrial cities:
The role of kin is the same in an agricultural town as it is in a pre-industrialized city:
Writing was important for literature and creative fiction in early cities:
Egyptian and Andean states both possessed a broad subsistence base and locally diverse environmental conditions within their territorial bounds:
Environmental factors were major players in the complex process of cultural change and response that gave rise to state organized societies:
In a chiefdom, social inequality arises within the kin system, whereas in the state, inequality derives from access to resources and the power this access conveys:
Ancient ideologies were not as complex as modern ideologies:
Mesopotamia has/had an environment that made farming easy:
The Mesopotamian “Epic of Gilgamesh,” a masterpiece of heroic quest, is still performed on stage today:
Throughout Mesopotamia, newly urbanized elites used lavish display and exotic luxuries as a means to affirm or reaffirm that prestige, status and authority:
Reliable, long-term interdependency became a vital factor in the survival of the Southwest Asian states by 3000 B.C.
The Sumerians, unfortunately, did not realize the importance of controlling the source of raw materials along with trade:
Sargon used commercial ventures and military conquest as a mean to obtain power, but a lack of proper administration governance lessened the duration of the Akkadian kingdom:
By the time the Hittites rose to power, an economic interdependency characterized the region – one that persisted despite the waxing and waning of power in initial city-states:
The alliance between Ugarit and the Hittites was vital, for it gave the latter access to one resource they lacked – a fleet of maritime ships:
These things were characteristic of Mesopotamian civilization: poorly organized trade, military conquests, efficient administration, and payment of tribute:
During the period after the Sea Peoples reign of power ceased, the state of Israel arose (c. 1000 B.C.):
The control the Sumerian city states eventually held (c. 2400 B.C.) over the trade routes linking Mesopotamia, Turkey, and the Levant, was:
Men worked in _______________ groups to clear silt from clogged river ways and to build irrigation canals:
Sumerian writing consisted of:
1.) Commercial and legal records
2.) Property
3.) Proverbs
Components of the settlement pattern of Uruk would include an aggregation of mud houses, courtyards, storehouses, _______________, and _______________:
Alleyways, ziggurats
Like most Mesopotamian empires, Uruk was both a _______________ ruler:
Secular and religious
Uruk’s ruler worked closely with a hierarchy of priests and minor officials because he was:
A secular/sacred personage
It is likely that Uruk was divided into:
Bronze technology produced tougher edged, more durable _______________:
Mesopotamian city-states were places for _______________ and _______________ strife by 2800 B.C. Thus they rose to power and prosperity and also sank into obscurity.
Economic, Social
Excavations of royal cemeteries reveal that courtiers were sacrificed to accompany their rulers into the next life by:
It is possible to grasp some of the _______________ dimensions of daily life among Sumerians by analyzing the positions of bodies in royal cemeteries, the grave goods, the deceased’s regalia, and the cause of death.
The control the Sumerian city states eventually held (c. 2400 B.C.) over the trade routes linking Mesopotamia, Turkey, and the Levant, was:
The wealth of Mycenae is visible in grave goods that include artifacts of:
Gold, silver, and copper
The Akkadian kingdom collapsed because of:
A 300 year drought
The three powerful island kingdoms that fought for control of the Eastern Mediterranean coast included:
Haiti, Mitanni and Egypt
Homer’s “Iliad” and “Odyssey” comprise a set of text describing:
Mycenaean culture
The different domains of culture – economic, political, and ideological – merged in the Palace of Minos on Crete, for it was a storehouse and a workshop for the maritime _______________ and _______________:
Shrine, Royal Residence
Mycenaean chieftains were _______________ in the metal trade that flowed through the Eastern Mediterranean:
Mycenae had monumental architecture that impressed, but its features were designed more for _______________ than lavish display.
Storage and defense
The epitome of conspicuous _______________ in this era was probably the 10 day party King Assumasirpal gave for 69,000 people who ate 14,000 sheep and drank more than 10,000 skins of wine.
Nebuchadnezzar created a sacred and secular _______________ when he built huge, mud-brick palaces, hanging gardens, a huge ziggurat, and a magnificent processional way. The immensity of this can never be realized when viewing a solitary Babylonian artifact for, in essence, his city was an entire showplace designed to display his wealth, power, and prestige.