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81 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The study of the human species and its immediate ancestors.
applied anthropology
The application of anthropological data, perspectives, theory, and methods to identify, assess, and solve contemporary social problems.
archaeological anthropology
The study of human behavior and cultural patterns and processes through the culture's material remains.
Reffering to the inclusion and combination (to solve a common problem) of both biological and cultural approaches - one of anthropology's hallmarks.
biological anthropology
The study of human biological variation in the time and space; includes evolution, genetics, growth and development, and primatology.
cultural anthropology
The study of human society and culture; describes, analyzes, interprets, and explains social and cultural similarities and differences.
Distinctly human; transmitted through learning; traditions and customs that govern behavior and beliefs.
Field work in a particular culture.
Cross-cultural comparison; the comparative study of ethnographic data, society, and culture.
food production
Cultivation of plants and domestication (stockbreeding) of animals; first developed 10,000 to 12,000 years ago.
general anthropology
The field of anthropology as a whole, consisting of cultural, archeaological, biological, and linguistic anthropology.
Interested in the whole of the human condition; past, present, and future; biology, society, language, and culture.
linguistic anthropology
The descriptive, comparative, and historical study of language and of lingusitic similarities and differences in time, space, and society.
physical anthropology
see biological anthropology
A systematic field of study or body of knowledge that aims, through experiment, observation, and deduction, to produce reliable explinations of phenomena, with reference to the material and physical world.
Investigates relationships between social and linguistic variations.
An explinatory framework, containing a series of statements, that helps us understand why (something exists); theories suggest patterns, connections, and relationships that may be confirmed by new research.
anthropology and education
Anthropological research in classrooms, homes, and neighborhoods, viewing students as total cultural creatures whose enculturation and attitudes toward education belong to a larger context that includes family, peers, and society.
cultural resource management (CRM)
The branch of applied archaeology aimed at preserving sites threatened by dams, highways, and other projects.
Specialized role acquired through a culturally appropriate process of selection, training, certification, and acquisition of a professional image; the curer is consulted by patients, who believe in his or her special powers, and recieves some form of special consideration; a cultural universal.
A scientifically identified health threat caused by a bacterium, virus, fungus, parasite, or other pathogen.
health-care systems
Beliefs, customs, and specialists concerned with ensuring health and preventing and curing illness; a cultural universal.
A condition of poor health perceived or felt by an individual.
medical anthropology
Unites biological and cultural anthropologists in the study of disease, health problems, health-care systems, and theries about illness in different cultures and ethnic groups.
practicing anthropologists
Used as a synonym for applied anthropology; anthropologists who practice their profession outside of academia.
scientific medicine
As distinguished from Western medicine, a health-care system based on scientific knowledge and procedures, encompassing such fields as pathology, microbiology, biochemistry, surgery, diagnostic technology, and applications.
complex societies
Nations; large and populous, with social stratification and central governments.
cultural consultants
Subjects in ethnographic research; people the ethnographer gets to know in the field, who teach him or her about their culture.
The research strategy that focuses on local explinations and criteria of significance.
The research strategy that emphasizes the ethnogapher's rather than the locals' explanatons, categories, and criteria of significance.
genealogical method
Procedures by which ethnographers discover and record connections of kinship, descent, and marriage, using diagrams and symbols.
interview schedule
Ethnographic tool for structuring a formal interview. A prepared form (usually printed or mimeographed) that guides interviewers with households or individuals being compared systematically. Contrasts with a questionnaire because the researcher has personal contact with the local people and records their answers.
key cultural consultant
Person who is an expert on a particular aspect of local life.
life history
Of a key consultant or narrator; provides a personal cultural portriat of existence of change in a culture.
longitudinal research
Long-term study of a community, region, society, culture, or other unit, usually based on repeated visits.
Form (usually printed) used by sociologists to obtain comparable information from respondents. Often mailed to and filled in by research subjects rather than by the researcher.
random sample
A sample in which all members of the population have an equal satatistical chance of being included.
A smaller study group chosen to represent a larger population.
survey research
Characteristic research procedure among social scientists other than anthropologists. Studies society through sampling, statistical analysis, and impersonal data collection.
Attributes (e.g., sex, age, height, weight) that differ from one person or case to the next.
The exchange of cultural features that results when groups come into continuous first-hand contact; the cultural patterns of either or both groups remain distinct.
core values
Key, basic, or central values that integrate a culture and help distinguish it from others.
cultural relativism
The position that the values and standards of acultures differ and deserve respect. Extreme relativism argues that cultures should be judged solely by their own standards.
cultural rights
Doctrine that certian rights are vested in identifiable groups, such as religious and ethnic minorities and indigenous societies. Cultural rights include a group's ability to preserve its culture, to raise its children in the ways of its forebears, to continue its language, and not to be deprived of its economic base by the nation-state in which it is located.
Borrowing of cultural traits between societies, either directly or through intermediaries.
The social proces by which culture is learned and transmitted across the generations.
The tendency to view one's own culture as best and to judge the behavior and beliefs of culturally different people by one's own standards.
Culture pattern or trait that exists in some but not all societies.
The accelerating interdependence of nations in a world system linked economically and through mass media and modern transportation systems.
human rights
Doctrine that invokes a realm of justice and moralitu beyond and superior to particular contries, cultures, and religions. Human rights, usually seen as vested in individuals, would include the right to speak freely, to hold religious beliefs without persecution, and not to be murdered, injured, enslaved, or imprisoned without charge.
independent invention
Development of the same cultural trait or pattern in separate cultures as a result of comparable needs, circumstances, and soultions.
international culture
Cultural traditions that extend beyond national boundries.
Intellectual property rights, consisting of each society's cultural base - its core beliefs and principles. IPR are claimed as a group right - a cultural right - allowing indigenous groups to control who may know and use their collective knowledge and its applications.
national culture
Cultural experiences, beliefs, learned behavior patterns, and values shared by citizens of the same nation.
Distinctive or unique culture trait, pattern, or integration.
Different cultural traditions associated with subgroups in the same complex society.
Something, verbal or nonverbal, that arbitrarily and by convention stands from something else, with which it has no neccessary or natural connection.
Something that exists in every culture.
achived status
Social status that comes through talents, choices, actions, and accomplishments, rather than ascription.
acribed status
Social status (i.e. race or gender) that people have little or no choice about occupying.
The process of change that a minority group may expierence when it moves to a country where another culture dominates; the minority is incorporated into the dominat culture to the point that it no longer exists as a separate cultural unit.
The political, social, economic, and cultural domination of a territory and its people by a foreign power for an extended time.
Rule assigning social identity on the basis of some aspect of one's ancestry.
Policies and practices that harm a group and its members.
ethnic group
Group distinguished by cultural similarities (shared among members of that group) and differences (between that group and others); ethnic-group members share beliefs, customs, and norms, and often a common language, religion, history, geography, and kinship.
Identification with, and feeling part of, an ethnic group, and exclusion from certian other groups because of this affiliation.
Rule that automatically places the children of a union or mating between members of different socioeconomic groups in the less-privileged group.
The view of cultural diversity in a country as something good and desirable; a multicultural society socializes individuals not only into the dominant (national) culture but also into an ethnic culture.
One a synonym for "ethnic group," designating a single culure sharing a language, religion, history, territory, ancestry, and kinship; now usually a synonym for state or nation-state.
Ethnic groups that once had, or which to have or regain, autonomous political status (in their own country).
An autonomous political entity; a country like the US or Canada.
An organism's evident traits, its "manifest biology" - anatomy and physiology.
plural society
A society that combines ethnic contrasts and economic interdependence of the ethnic groups.
Devaluing (looking down on) a group because of its assumed behavior, values, capabilities, attitudes, or other attributes.
An ethnic group assumed to have a biological basis.
Discrimination against an ethnic group assumed to have a biological basis.
People who have been forced (involuntary refugees) or who have chosen (volentary refugees) to flee a country, to escape persecution or war.
social race
A group assumed to have a biological basis but actually perceived and defined in a social context, by a particular culture rather than by scientific criteria.
state (nation-state)
Complex sociopolitical system that administers a teritory and populace with substantial contrasts in occupation, wealth, prestige, and power. An independent, centrally organized political organization with a formal central government and a division of society into classes.
Any position that determines where someone fits into society; may be ascribed or achieved.
Class-structured; stratified societies have marked differences in wealth, prestige, and power between social classes.