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52 Cards in this Set

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lemur
promsimian
mouse lemur & sifaka
found on island madagascar
lorises
bush baby
slow loris
small bodies
vocalizations to
tarsiers
small bodied
leap around using hind legs
nocturnal endagered
south pacific and indonesia
prosimian
new word monkeys technical term
platyrrhines
new world monkeys characteristics
only found in new world
smaller
dental formula: 2.1.3.3/2.1.3.3.
wider spectrum, rounded and laterally facing nostrils
aborheal
semi-brachaited
quadropedalism
callitrichids
nwm
buffey headed marmoset
golden lion tamarins
twin births
cebids
NWM
white throated capuchin
howler monkeys
cattarhines
largers than NWM, smaller than apes
dental: 2.1.2.3/2.1.2.3.
ishial callosites: butt pad
brachiation/quadropedialism
narrow spetum and elongated slit
no prehensile tail
cheek pouch monkeys
cercopithecinae
store food in cheek pouches
mandrill
baboon
leaf eaters
colobinae
specialized stomachs that have acids to break down cellulose
bulk of diet is leaves
colobus
proboscis monkeys
apes - general characterstics
no tail
terrestial
found in africa and south pacific
dental: 2.1.2.3/2.1.2.3
narrow septum and slits facing down
broader chest, smaller snout, upright body posture, more encaphalized
skeletal modifications making wrist more stable for knuckle walking
lesser apes
vocalization- songs to attract mates
braichators - largely aborheal, really efficient and fast
smaller bodied apes
gibbons
siamangs
orangutans
ape
large bodied
sexual dimorphism
endangered
orangutans
ape
large bodied
sexual dimorphism
endangered
gorillas
ape
silverback
1 in group/leader
decides where to go/protects the children
chimpanzees
ape agressive/strong
DNA is similar to humans
intelligent/cant control emotions
jane goodall
bonobos
ape
sexual promiscuity
sex to: diffuse tension, procreate, females have sex with each other
how we endanger primates
hunting
habitat destruction:
trade: for zoos/research/pets
pet/service animals: animals are domesticated but can hurt
we can pass on illnesses to animals
conservsation
education/awarness: programs that limit deforrestation, make people aware
ecotourism: money made goes to conservation efforts, minimize the impact of activities on the enviroment
legislation: est particular hunting seasons, est. protective areas where you cant hunt
multimale-multifemale
lots of males and females join in a big group
often described as fluid and fission/fusion typer of groups
polygyny
many woman and 1 male; only other males are adolscents or infants
determines where they go, when they get food typically father of infant boys
all males
all male monkeys
dominance hierarchy
talking about the relationships in the group
establishes behavior parameters
establish parameter
hierarchial arrangement for who is in charge, higher ranking member has benefits, lower some drawbacks
higher ranking can control with a look/gesture
psotition not permanate
"position not permanet"
can fluctuate, position can be influenced by:
- age, sex, agressiveness, intelligence, birth order, mothers ranking in group

benefits of heirarchy
reduces agression and conflict
with a higher ranking, literal benefits come
aggressive behavior
fighting, hitting, bearing teeth, staring, biting
grooming
picking out dirt and insects from hair(hygenic)
pleasurable
altriusm
helping others at the risk of your own safety
ex: unrelated adults helping orphans
cooperation
individuals helping each other find food, share food
helping each other when they're threatened
cooperation
individuals helping each other find food, share food
helping each other when they're threatened
estrus
a period of sexual receptivity in females that is correlated with oluvation and hormonal cycles
can tell by swelling and changes in color of the genital area
fertilization can occur
contorship
temp relationship between a male and female where they spend a lot of time together and mate frequently
doesnt last after estrus is over
parental investment
burden of raising offspring falls on mother
allomothering
allomothering
non-maternal care
fathers and sibling
unrelated adults take care of offspring
foragers
saily search of food b/c they dont store food
frugivore
bulk of diet is fruit
folivore
bulk of diet is foliage/leaves
omnivore
eat little bit of everything
behavioral ecology
study of evolution of behavior that emphasizes the role of the enviroment on behavior patterns
if diet is ubiquitious, it supports a large group b/c there is less agression adn more resource availability
sociobiology
study of the evolution of behavior hat emphasizes the role of genes on behavior; certain behaviors can be passed down
sociaobology ex
testerosterone and agression; increased levels of test. make a male more agressive, leads to higher level of dominance- icreased chance of mating = more geneticallt fit
ways primates communicate
vocalization
posture
facial expressions
autonomic response
foxp2
genes that deals with precise coordination and how sensory intakes go through our brain and back into our muscles
learned behavior
passed down through many generations
different behaviors are acceptable depending on what culture you live in
chimps
first to use tools: leaf sponges, spears, nutcrakers, termine fishing
macaques
washing food
homology
a structre that is shared by two organisms with a common ancestor
anology
a structer that is shared b/c of common functional adaptation
ancestral cladistics
has not altered since the ancestral condition
derived cladistics
has from ancestral condition
bio species concept
a species that can interbreed and produce viable offspring