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35 Cards in this Set

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Glands
An aggregation of specialized cells that secrete or excrete substances, such as the pituitary gland, which produces hormones, and the spleen, which takes part in blood production.
Autocrine
Pertaining to a hormone that binds to receptors on, and initiates a cellular response in, the same cell that produced it.
Paracrine
Pertaining to a biologically active substance that passes by diffusion within the extracellular space from the source to a nearby cell, where it initiates a response.
Endocrine glands
Ductless organs or tissues that secrete a hormone into the bloodstream.
Exocrine glands
A gland that secretes a fluid via a duct.
Pheromones
A species-specific substance released into the environment for the purpose of signaling between individuals.
Glycocalyx
A meshwork of acid mucopolysaccharide and glycoprotein filaments that arises from the membrane covering the microvilli of the intestinal brush border.
Mucus
A viscous, protein-containing mixture of mucopolysaccharides secreted from specialized mucous membranes; often plays an important role in filter feeding (in invertebrates) or in lubricating or protecting body surfaces.
Goblet cells
Mucus-secreting cells found in most epithelia.
Collogen
The major protein of connective tissue.
Secretory granule
(Secretory vesicles) membrane–bounded cytoplasmic vesicles containing secretory products of a cell.
Apocrine secretion
Secretion by sloughing off of the apical portion of secretory cell.
Merocrine secretion
In merocrine secretion, the apical portion of the cell pinches off, and this portion, containing the secretory products, breaks open in the lumen of the gland. This process is characteristic of many digestive glands in mammals and the exocrine glands of arthropods and annelids.
Holocrine secretion
A secretory mechanism in which entire secretory cells are cast off and break up to release their contents.
Hormones
A chemical compound that is synthesized and secreted by an endocrine tissue into the bloodstream and that influences the activity of a target tissue.
Primary fluid
A fluid secreted by exocrine glands to which other substances (ions, hormones, etc.) are added.
Endocrinology
The study of the endocrine system.
Amines
A derivative of ammonia in which at lease one hydrogen atom is replaced by an organic group.
Eicosenoids
Paracrine hormones derived form fatty acids; known to be involved in reproduction, inflammation, fever, pain, and a variety of other processes.
Steroid hormones
Cyclic hydrocarbon derivatives synthesized from cholesterol that functions as chemical messengers.
Peptide and protein hormones
peptide and protein hormones (e.g., insulin)) constitute the largest number of hormones and are the most complex.
Autacoid hormone
Endogenous substances with hormonal properties that are not amines, eicosanoids, steroid hormones, or peptide hormones.
Neurohormones
A substance that is released by neurons and exerts hormonal effects outside the nervous system.
Neurosecretory cells
A neuron that released neurohormones.
Neurohemal organ
Neurosecretory axons generally terminate in clusters within a bed of capillaries, forming a discrete neurohemal organ.
Tropic
Pertaining to hormones that act on other endocrine tissues.
Neurophysins
Proteins associated with neurohypophyseal hormones stored in granules in the neurosecretory terminals; cleaved from the hormones before secretion.
Chromaffin cells
Epinephrine-secreting cells of the adrenal medulla; named for their high affinity for chromium salt stains.
Up-regulation
Control of physiological activity by an increase in receptor density in a target cell membrane.
Down-regulation
Control of physiological activity by a decrease in receptor density in a target cell membrane.
Glucocorticoids
Steroids synthesized in the adrenal cortex that have wide-ranging metabolic activity; they include cortisone, cortisol, corticosterone, and 11-deoxycorticosterone.
Prostaglandins
A family of natural fatty acids that arise in a variety of tissues and are able to induce contraction in uterine and other smooth muscle, lower blood pressure, and modify the actions of some hormones.
Eccrine gland
An exocrine gland with a coiled, unbranched duct leading from the secretory region.
Apocrine gland
An apocrine gland is an exocrine gland with a branched duct leading from the secretory region to the surface.
Saliva
A watery fluid secreted in the headgut that aids in mechanical and chemical digestion.