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179 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Which of the following is a problem faced by animals as they increase in size?
Decreasing surface-to-volume ratio
An increase in which of the following parameters is most important in the evolution of specialized exchange surfaces such as the linings of the lungs or intestines?
Surface area
Why must multicellular organisms keep their cells awash in an "internal pond"?
Cells need an aqueous medium for the exchange of nutrients, gases, and wastes.
Which statement best links the group of tissues known as connective tissue? A connective tissue will have
relatively few cells and a large amount of extracellular matrix
Which of the following tissues lines the kidney tubules?
What is the functional unit of nervous tissue?
Which of the following traits is characteristic of all types of muscle tissue?
cells that contain actin and myosin
Which of the following layers of the stomach is best described as being composed primarily of epithelial tissue?
Which of the following is an important distinction between the measurement of basal metabolic rate (BMR) and standard metabolic rate (SMR)?
SMRs must be determined at a specific temperature
The least reliable indicator of an animal's metabolic rate would be the amount of
water it drinks
Which example best describes a homeostatic control system
the kidneys excrete salt into the urine when dietary salt levels rise
Consider an ectotherm and an endotherm of equal body size. The ectotherm is more likely to survive an extended period of food deprivation than the endotherm because
The ectotherm will expend less energy/kg body weight than the endotherm;
the ectotherm will invest little to no energy in temperature regulation
Which of the following is true about the activity levels of a snake?
A snake is more active in summer because it can gain body heat by conduction
All of the following are mechanisms of thermoregulation in terrestrial mammals except
changing the rate of heat exchange by conforming to environmental temperatures
absorption of heat from the surroundings
process that occurs in the brown fat of some mammals
panting in dogs
fur and feathers
Which of the following terms could be applied to any oranism with a digestive system
During the process of digestion, fats are broken down when fatty acids are detached from glycerol. In addition, proteins are digested to yield amino acids. What do thee two processes have in common? Both
involve the addition of a water molecule to break bonds (hydrolysis)
Which of the following digestive processes requires enzymes?
To leave the digestive tract, a substance must cross a cell membrane. During which stage of the food processing does this take place?
Increasing the surface area facilitates which of the following digestive processes?
absorption and hydolysis
Which of the following is an advantage of a complete digestive system over a gastrovascular cavity?
specialized regions are possible
Most enzymatic hydolysis of the macromolecules in food occurs in the
small intestine
Without functioning parietal cells, an individual would
not be able to initiate protein digestion in the stomach
Which of the following statements about pepsin is true? Pepsin
begins the hydrolysis of proteins in the stomach
Most nutrients are absorbed across the epithelium of the
small intestine
Which of the following statements about bile salts is true? Bile salts
emulsify fats in the duodenum
Which of the following enzymes has the lowest pH optimum?
Where are the agents that help emulsify fat produced?
# 9, liver
Where does the complete digestion of carbohydrates occur?
4 only, small intestine
Where does the digestion of fats occur
4 only, small intestine
Which structure is home to bacteria that produce vitamins as by-products of their metabolism?
# 5, large intestine
Which one of the following statements about digestion is false?
During digestion the essential macromolecules are directly absorbed.
How does the digestion and absorption of fat differ from that of carbohydrates?
Most absorbed fat first enters the lymphatic system, whereas carbohydrates directly enter the blood
All of the following are adaptations to an herbivorous diet except
bile salts
In which group of animals would you expect to find a relatively long cecum?
Why are cattle able to survive on a diet consisting almost entirely of plant material?
They have cellulose-digesting, symbiotic microorganisms in chambers of their stomachs (rumens)
Which is a correct statement concerning the insect circulatory system?
The circulating fluid bathes tissues directly.
Organisms in which a circulating body fluid is distinct from the fluid that directly surrounds the body's cells are likely to have
a closed circulatory system
Which of the following are the only vertebrates in which blood flows directly from respiratory organs to body tissues without first returning to the heart?
Through how many capillary beds must a human red blood cell travel if it takes the shortest possible route from the right ventricle to the right atrium?
Chambers or vessels that carry oxygenated blood include which of the following?
Vessels / Chambers 3, 5, 6
Blood is carried directly to the lungs from which of the following?
Vessel 4
What is the correct sequence of blood flow, beginning at the pulmonary artery?
4, 5, 6, 3 systemic circulation, 2, 1
A patient has a blood pressure of 120/75, a pulse rate of 40 beats/min, a stroke volume of 70 mL/beat, and a respiratory rate of 25 beaths/min. This person's cardiac output per minute would be
2,800 mL
If the atrioventricular node cold be surgically removed from the heart without disrupting signal transmission to the Purkinje fibers, what would be the effect?
Atria and ventricles would contract at about the same time
What is the reason that fluid is forced out of the systemic capillaries at the arteriole end?
The hydrostatic pressure of the blood is greater than the osmotic pressure of the blood
What would be the long-term effect if the lymphatic vessels associated with a capillary bed were to become blocked?
Fluid would accumulate in the interstitial areas
Arteries always
Carry blood away from the heart
The purpose of having valves in the cardiovascular system is to
ensure that blood flows in one direction.
Put these autorhythmic cells into the correct order for conveying electrical signals through a normal heart.
Sinoatrial nodes (5)
Internodal pathway (2)
atrioventricular node (4)
bundle of His (1)
left & right bundle branches (6)
Purkinje fibers (3)
Which of the following features do all gas exchange systems have in common?
the exchange surfaces are moist
Why is gas exchange more difficult for aquatic animals with gills than for terrestrial animals with lungs?
Water is denser than air
Water contains much less O2 than air per unit volume
Which of the following is an example of countercurrent exchange?
the flow of water across the gills of a fish and that of blood within those gills
Where do air breathing insects carry out gas exchange?
across the membranes of cells
Tracheal systems for gas exchange are found in which organism?
All of the following respiratory surfaces are associated with capillary beds except the
tracheae of insects
If a molecule of CO2 released into the blood in your left toe travels out of your nose, it must pass through all of the following structures except
pulmonary vein
Air rushes into the lungs of humans during inhalation because
the rib muscles and diaphragn contract, increasing the lung volume
Which of the following occurs with the exhalation of air from human lungs?
The volume of the thoracic cavity decreases
Air flows in only one direction through the lungs of which animals?
Why is the respiratory system of a bird more efficient than the human repiratory system?
The bird respiratory system does not mix exhaled air with inhaled air
The blood level of which gas is most important in controlling human respiration rate?
carbon dioxide
Which one of these statements about lungs is false?
The concentration of CO2 is higher in the air than in the alveolar capillaries
How is most of the carbon dioxide transported by the blood in humans?
bicarbonate ions in the plasma
Hydrogen ions produced in human red blood cells are prevented from significantly lowering pH by combining with
Cyanide acts as a mitochondrial poison by blocking the final step in the elctron transport chain. What will happen to human red blood cells if they are placed in an isotonic solution containing cyanide?
The cells will probably be unaffected
Which action below is affected by an antihistamine?
blood vessel dilation
What are antigens
foreign molecules that trigger the generation of antibodies
Which of the following cell types are responsible for initiating a secondary immune response?
memory cells
Which of the following is true of both T cells and B cells?
They produce effector cells against bacterial pathogens; they are produced from stem cells of the bone marrow

A and B are true
A patient can produce antibodies against some bacterial pathogens, but he does not produce antibodies against viral infections. This is probably due to a disorder in which cells of the immune system?
T cells
Which statement about antibodies is false?
Antibodies bind with foreign cells and lyse them
These cells are involved in cell-mediated immunity and destroy virally infected cells
cytotoxic T cells
These cells have a function that is similar to the function of dendritic cells
These cells are involved in innate immunity, and a person lacking these cells may have a higher than normal chance of developing malignant tumors.
natural killer cells
The following events occur when a mammalian immume system first encounters a pathogen. Place them in correct sequence and then choose the answer that indicates that sequence.
D) III, IV, II, I, V, III, II, I, V, IV
Which cell type interacts with both the humoral and cell-mediated immune pathways?
helper T cells
Which of the following types of cells is not involved in both antibody-mediated immunity and cell-mediated immunity?
plasma cells
A transfusion of type A blood given to a person who has type O blood would result in which of the following?
the recipient's anti-A antibodies clumping the donated red blood cells
In which of the cases could the mother exhibit an anti-Rh-factor reaction to the developing fetus?
Case I only (Mother Rh- and Fetus Rh+)
In which of the cases would the mother not exhibit an anti-Rh-factor reaction to the developing fetus?
cases 2 and 3 only
(Rh- Mom and Rh- Baby or Rh+ Mom and Rh- baby)
Which choice could be used an an analogy to describe how HIV affects the body?
snipping the wires coming from a car battery so that no electricity flows to the car components
Compared to the seawater around them, most marine invertebrates are
Which feature of osmoregulation is found in both marine and freshwater bony fish?
gain of water through food
In addition to their role in gas exchange, fish gills are also directly involved in
The digestion and utilization of which nutrient creates the greatest need for osmoregulation by the kidneys?
Which of the following is true of urea? it is
the primary nitrogenous waste product of humans
Which of the following is true of ammonia?
It is soluble in water
Which of the following is not a function of the liver?
excretion of urea
What is the main nitrogenous waste excreted by birds?
uric acid
Which of the following is a nitrogenous waste that requires hardly any water for its excretion?
uric acid
What is the process called by which materials are returned to the blood from the nephron fluid?
selective reabsorption
Which of the following mechanisms for osmoregulation or nitrogen removal is incorrectly paired with its corresponding animal?
flame bulb-snake
Which of the following excretory systems is partly based on the filtration of fluid under high hydrostatic pressure?
kidneys of vertebrates
What is the functional unit of the kidney?
The transfer of fluid from the glomerulus to Bowman's capsule
is mainly a consequence of blood pressure force-filtering the fluid
Which part of the vertebrate nephron consists of capillaries?
In which region of the renal tubule would filtration occur
Region 1 (a)
In which region would urine become more concentrated
Region VII (e)
In which region would nutrients be actively transported to the blood?
Region II (b)
Which one of the following is extremely important for water conservation in mammals?
juxtamedullary nephrons
Depending on salt intake and water availability, humans can produce urine that is
hypoosmotic to body fluids
isoosmotic to body fluids
hyperosmotic to body fluids

A, B & C
What would account for increased urine production as a result of drinking alcoholic beverages?
decreased amount of antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
Which statement is true about marine fishes?
The kidneys of marine fishes excrete little urine
Why is it that some body cells respond differently to the same peptide hormones?
a target cell's response is determined by the product of a signal transduction pathway
Which of the following statements about hormones is correct:
Steroid hormones affect the synthesis of proteins, whereas peptide hormones affect the activity of proteins already present in the cell
The endocrine system and the nervous system are structurally related. Which of the following cells best illustrates this relationship?
a neurosecretory cell in the hypothalamus
The hypothalamus controls the anterior pituitary by means of
releasing hormones
Oxytocin and ADHY are produced by the _______ and stored in the ________
neurohypophysis (posterior pituitary)
Iodine is added to commercially prepared table salt to help prevent deficiencies of this essential mineral. Which gland requires iodine to Function properly?
Tropic hormones from the anterior pituitary directly affect the release of which of the following?
Which of the following statements about endocrine glands is incorrect?
the parathyroids regulate metabolic rate
Which hormone exerts antagonistic action to PTH (parrathyroid hormone)?
Which of the following glands shows both endocrine and exocrine activity?
All of the following are steriod hormones except
Blood samples taken from an individual who had been fasting for 24 hours would have which of the following?
high levels of glucagon
low levels of insulin

B & C
If the adrenal cortex were removed, which group of hormones would be most affected?
Which of the following statements about the adrenal gland is correct?
during stress, ACTH stimulated the adrenal cortex, and neurons of the sympathetic nervous system stimulate the adrenal medulla
Which of the following hormones is secreted by the adrenal gland in response to stress and promote the synthesis of glucose from noncarbohydrate substrates?
Which combination of gland and hormone would be linked to winter hibernation and spring reproduction in bears?
pineal gland, melatonin
Which of the following is associated with the evolution of a central nervous system?
bilateral symmetry
An organism that lacks integration centers
will not be able to interpret stimuli
What do muscles, nerves, and glands have in common?
They synapse with neurons
They are referred to as post-synaptic cells
They are target cells
Integration of simple responses to certin stimuli, such as the patellar reflex, is accomplished by which of the following?
spinal cord
Which of the following statements if false?
The outside of a cell is negative with respect to the inside of a cell
If the concentration of potassium in the cytoplasm of a nerve cell with a resting membrane potential of -70mV were elevated above normal, the new resting potential would be
-69 mV or higher
If an otherwise normal nerve cell were made permeable to large negative ions, what would happen?
the membrane potential would not form
The sodium-potassium pump or neurons pumps
Na+ out of the cell and K+ into the cell
After an action potential, the resting potential is restored by
the opening of voltage sensitive potassium channels and the closing of sodium activation gates
Repolarization of the membrane of a neuron after an action potential is a consequence of which of the following?
Na+ channels inactivating
K+ channels opening

II and III only
In the sequence of permeability changes that depolarizes and then repolarizes the membrane of a neuron during an action potential, which of the following changes occurs first?
sodium gates open
Saltatory conduction is a term applied to conduction of impulses
along myelinated nerve fibers
The divisions of the nervous system that have antagonistic actions, or opposing actions are
sympathetic and parasympathetic
Which part of the vertebrate nervous system is most involved in preparation for the fight-or-flight response?
Which of the following activities would be associated with the parasympathetic division of the nervous system?
rest and digestion
The establishment and expression of emotions involves the
frontal lobes and limbic system
What do Wernicke's and Broca's regions of the brain affect?
The primary motor cortex is part of which part of the central nervous system?
What is the main neurotransmitter of the sympathetic system?
Which of the following is a good example of sensory adaptation?
olfactory receptors ceasing to reduce receptor potentials when triggered by the smell of a second batch of cookies you are baking
What impact would a non-functioning statocyst have on an earthworm? The earthworm would not be able to
orient with respect to gravity
Which of the following would be affected by damage to the ciliary muscles?
Which of the following is a correct statement about the cells of the human retina?
cone cells can detect color, but rod cells cannot
Which of the following would be affected by damage to the ciliary muscles?
Which of the following is a correct statement about the cells of the human retina?
cone cells can detect color, but rod cells cannot
Which of the following statements about vision is incorrect?
The conjunctiva covers the cornea and keeps it moist.
If a baseball player is hit in the back of the head, which part of his brain would be the most likely injured?
the primary visual cortezx
The structure pictured in Figure 49.3 can be found in which types of muscles?
skeletal and cardiac

A & B only
Which section consists only of myosin filaments?
Which section consists of both actin and myosin filaments?
When an organism dies, its muscles remain in a contracted state termed "rigor mortis" for a brief period of time. Which of the following most directly contributes to this phenomenon?
ATP to break bonds between the thick and thin filaments
Which of the following does not form part of the thin filaments of a muscle cell?
What is the role of calcium in muscle contractions?
bind to the troponin complex, which leads to the exposure of the myosin-binding sites
Produces hormones that are secreted by the pituitary gland
Coordinates muscle actions
regulates body temperature
Contains regulatory centers for the respiratory and circulatory systems
medulla oblongata
Which of the following offers the best description of neural transmission across a mammalian synaptic gap?
neural impulses cause the release of chemicals that diffuse across the gap
Which statement could be applied to both the nervous system and the endocrine system?
They both use chemical signaling; the final response depends on the receptor mode of action

Only A and B are correct
What happens when beta cells of the pancreas release insulin into the blood?
body cells take up more glucose
The results most likely occurred because progesterone exerts an effect on the
maintenance of the uterus
Which of the following hormone sequences is correct?
Which of the following statements about hormones is incorrect?
They are used to communicate between different organisms
Hormones from the hypothalamus affect the release of all of the following except
What would account for increased urine production as a result of drinking alcoholic beverages?
decreased amount of anti-diuretic hormone (ADH)
Which of the following is a good example of sensory adaptation?
olfactory receptors ceasing to produce receptor potentials when triggered by the smell of the second batch of cookies you are baking
Which of the following statements about either hearing or balance is incorrect?
The volume of sound is a function of the strength of the action potential that reaches the brain
Which function associated with muscle would be most directly affected by low levels of calcium?
muscle contraction
Muscle cells are stimulated by neurotransmitters released from the synaptic terminal of
motor neuron axons
Which of the following is the correct sequence that occurs during the excitation and contraction of a muscle cell?
5, 3, 2, 1, 5
Which of the following are shared by skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle?
thick and thin filaments
produces hormones that are secreted by the pituitary gland
D, hypothalamus
coordinates muscle actions
B, cerebellum
contains regions that help regulate hunger and thirst
D, hypothalamus