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57 Cards in this Set

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Osmoregulators
Animals that maintain an internal osmolarity different from the medium in which that are immersed have been termed osmoregulators.
Osmoconformer
An animal that does not actively control the osmotic condition of its body fluids and instead conforms to the osmolarity of the surrounding medium is termed an osmoconformer.
Osmolytes
Osmolar homeostasis is achieved by increasing the concentration of intracellular organic osmolyes, substances that, by their presence in high concentrations, act to increase intracellular osmolarity.
Trimethylamine oxide (TMAO)
A nitrogenous waste product, probably form choline decomposition.
Urea
(NH2)2CO, the primary nitrogenous waste product in the urine of mammals.
Obligatory osmotic exchanges
Obligatory osmotic exchanges occur mainly in response to physical factors over which the animal has little or no physiological control.
Regulated osmotic exchanges
Regulated osmotic exchanges are physiologically controlled and serve to aid in maintaining internal homeostasis.
Arginine vasotocin (AVT)
The permeability of amphibian skin is controlled by a hormone called arginine vasotocin (AVT) or, more simply, vasotocin; like the mammalian antidiuretic hormone (ADH; also called vasopressin), vasotocin enhances water permeability.
Metabolic water
Although water is an end product of cellular metabolism, it is produced in small enough quantities that its elimination is not problematic. In fact, this so-called metabolic water is the major source of water for many desert dwellers.
Countercurrent multiplication
(note: involves the loop of Henle) the kidneys of binds and mammals utilize countercurrent multiplication to produce hyperosmotic urine, which is more concentrated than the blood plasma.
Loop of Henle
The U-shaped portion of the renal tubule that lies in the renal medulla.
Temporal countercurrent system
The respiratory loss of water via exhaled air is minimized through a mechanism first discovered in the nose of the desert-dwelling kangaroo rat. This mechanism, termed a temporal countercurrent system, retains most of the respiratory water vapor by condensing it on cooled nasal passages during exhalation.
Euryhaline
Euryhaline aquatic animals can tolerate a wide range of salinities.
Stenohaline
Stenohaline animals can tolerate only a narrow osmotic range of salinities.
Chloride cells
Epithelial cells of fish gills that engage in active transport of salts.
Salt glands
Osmoregularory organs that form a hypertonic aqueous exudates by means of active salt secretion into small tubules situated above the eyes, which is excreted via the nostrils; found in many birds and reptiles that live in desert or marine environments.
Apical
The apical surface (sometimes referred to as the mucosal or luminal surface) of an epithelial cell faces a space that is continuous with the external world (such as the sea, the pond, the lumen of the gut, or the lumen of a kidney tubule.)
Basal
The basal surface (sometimes referred to as the serosal surface) generally bears deep basal clefts and faces an internal compartment containing extracellular fluid.
F-ATP synthases
One type of ion-motive ATPase, or pump, found in mitochondria and chloroplasts, which use a proton electrochemical gradient to make ATP.
V-ATPases
V-ATPases, or vacuolar-type ATPases, hydrolyze ATP to generate electrochemical gradients, as do P-ATPases.
P-ATPases
V-ATPases, or vacuolar-type ATPases, hydrolyze ATP to generate electrochemical gradients, as do P-ATPases.
Cortex
The outer layer of the kidney is termed the cortex.
Medulla
The inner layer of the kidney, the medulla, sends papillae projecting in to the renal pelvis.
Renal pelvis
Cavity at base of each kidney; receives urine from collecting duct system and empties it into ureter.
Micturition
Urination
Urethra
A channel that passes urine from the bladder out of the body.
Nephron
The morphologic and functional unit of the vertebrate kidney; composed of the glomerulus and Bowman’s capsule, the proximal and distal tubules, the loop of Henle (in birds and mammals), and a collecting duct.
Collecting ducts
The portion of the mammalian renal tubule in which the final concentration of urine occurs.
Bowman’s capsule
(glomerular capsule) A globular expansion at the beginning of a renal tubule that surrounds the glomerulus.
Glomerulus
A coiled mass of capillaries.
Proximal tubule
The coiled portion of the renal tubule located in the renal cortex, beginning at the glomerulus and leading to (and continuous with) the descending limb of the loop of Henle.
Distal tubule
The potion of a renal tubule located in the renal cortex, leading from (and continuous with) the ascending limb of the loop of Henle to the collecting duct.
Juxtamedullary nephrons
Juxtamedullary nephrons, which have their glomeruli in the inner part of the cortex and long loops of Henle that plunge deeply into the medulla.
Cortical nephrons
Cortical nephrons, which have their glomeruli in the outer cortex and relatively short loops of Henle that extend only a short distance into the medulla.
Afferent arterioles
Supplies blood to the nephrons
Efferent arterioles
Unlike most other capillary beds, which would join to form veins, the capillaries of the glomerulus come together to form an efferent arteriole.
Vasa recta
The capillary network that surrounds the loop of Henle in the tubules of the mammalian kidney.
Filtration slits and pedicels
The hydraulic properties of the glomerular apparatus depend primarily on the sievelike filtration slits, which are formed from a rather remarkable assemblage of fine cellular processes termed pedicels.
Podocytes
Epithelial cells lining Bowman’s capsule whose foot processes form filtration slits.
Juxtaglomerular apparatus
A group of specialized cells situated between the distal renal tubule and the afferent glomerular arterioles that modulate renal blood flow.
Macula densa
One of the two specialized cells of the juxtaglomerular apparatus is modified distal-tubule cells, which form the macula densa and monitor the osmolarity and flow of fluid in the distal tubule.
Juxtaglomerular cells
One of the two specialized cells of the juxtaglomerular is modified smooth-muscle cells called granular or juxtaglomerular cells, which are located primarily in the wall of the afferent arteriole.
renin
A proteolytic enzyme produced by specialized cells in renal arterioles, which converts angiotensinogen to angiotensin.
Renal clearance
That volume of plasma containing the quantity of a freely filtered substance that appears in the glomerular filtrate per unit time. Total renal clearance ins the amount of ultrafiltrate produced by the kidney per unit time.
Brush border
A free epithelial cell surface bearing numerous microvilli.
Aldosterone
A mineralocorticoid secreted by the adrenal cortex; the most important electrolyte controlling steroid, which acts in the renal tubules to increase the reabsorption of sodium.
3 mechanisms that account for the aldosterone-induced increase in sodium
Sodium pump hypothesis, Metabolic hypothesis, Permease hypothesis
Sodium pump hypothesis
Activity of the Na+/K+ pump in the basolateral membrane increases, perhaps due to changes in membrane structure that enhance ATPase activity as well as increased synthesis of the pump protein.
Metabolic hypothesis
The production of ATP increases, providing more APT to power the Na+/K+ pump, perhaps due to an aldosterone-stimulated increase in fatty acid metabolism.
Permease hypothesis
The permeability of the apical membrane to Na+ ions increases, presumably due to an increase in the number of sodium channels in the membrane.
Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)
(ANP) One of a family of peptide hormones cleaved from a single precursor peptide and produced in the cardiac atria; its physiological effects in clued increased urine output, increased sodium excretion, and receptor-mediated vasodilation, the net result of which is lowered blood pressure.
Malpighian tubules
Insect excretory organs responsible for the active secretion of waste products and the formation of urine.
Ammonotelic
Pertaining to the excretion of nitrogen in the form of ammonia.
Ureotelic
Excreting nitrogen in the form of urea.
Ornithine-urea cycle
A cycle succession of reactions that eliminate ammonia and produce urea in the liver of ureotelic organisms.
Uricolytic pathway
The pathway through which uric acid or urates are broken down.
Uricotelic
Excreting nitrogen in the form of uric acid.