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37 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
cerebrum
the largest part and highest center of the mammalian brain; evolved from the olfactory centers of lower vetebrates
tectum
the highest center from processing visual info in fishes and amphibians
pons
the region of the vertebrate brain that lies just rostral to the medulla oblongata
cerebral cortex
the thin layer of gray matter that covers the cerebrum of mammals and birds
thalamus
a major center in the midbrain of birds and mammals that receives and transmits both sensory and motor info
amygdala
the region of the brain that processes info and organized output related to the emotions
hypothalamus
the part of the diencephaslon that forms the floor of the median ventricle of the brain; includes many subregions that contribute to control the autonomic nervous system and of endocrine function
nuclei
collections of somata of neurons with similar functions
association cortex
areas of the cerebral cortex that neither directly receive sensory info nor directly contribute to motor output; instead, these areas typically receive input from many sensory modalities and are broadly connected to other areas in the cortex and other brain centers
sympathetic pathway
division of the autononomic nervous system in which increased activity typically provides metabolic support for vigorous physical activity; sometimes called the fight or flight system
parasympathetic pathway
the division of the autonomic nervous system in which increased activity generally supports functions such as digestion and sexual activity
preganglionic neuron
an autonomic neuron that has its soma located in the CNS , sends an ozon into the periphery, and synapses onto postganglionic cells'
postganglionic neuron
an autonomic neuron that has its soma located in a peripheral ganglion, receives synaptic input from preganglionic neurons, and synapses onto target organs
afferent nerves
toward the center of the body
spinal cord
the portion of the vertebrate CNS that is encased in the vertebral column, extending from the caudal end of the medulla; consists of a core of gray matter and an outer layer of white matter
reflex arc
a neuronal pathway that connects sensory input and motor output; consists of afferent nerve input to a nerve center that produces activity in efferent nerves connected to an effector organ, such as a muscle
monosynaptic reflex arc
a simple reflex in which a sensory neuron (the receptor) synapses in the central nervous system onto a motor neuron that innervates an effector
polysynaptic
characterized by transmission through multiple synapses in series
monosynaptic
requiring or transmitted through only one synapse
parallel processing
a pattern of info processing in the nervous system in which multiple pathways simultaneously carry info about a particular input or output; the info is resynthesized where the pathways converge
nerve nets
a collection of interconnected neurons that is distributed through the body, rather than concentrated in a central location, most typical of lower organsims, such as coelenterates
ganglia
anatomically distinct collection of neuronal somata
neuropil
a dense mass of closely interwoven and synapsing neuronal processes (axon collaterals and dendrites) and glial cells
brain
the major neuronal center within the body; typically located at the anterior of the body
cephalization
the evolutionary tendency for the neurons of higher organisms to be concentrated in a brain located at the anterior end of the animal
tracts
within the CNS; a collection of axons that have related functions
nerves
a bundle of axons held together as a unit by connective tissue
central nervous system (CNS)
the collection of neurons and parts of neurons that are contained within the brain and spinal cord of vertebrates or within the brain, main nerve cord, and major ganglia of invertebrates
peripheral nervous system (PNS)
the entire collection of neurons and parts of neurons that lie outside of the CNS
efferent nerves
toward the periphery of the body
somatic nervous system
the part of the nervous system that mediates conscious perception and controls voluntary activity in the skeletal muscle
autonomic system
efferent pathways of the nervous system that control involuntary, visceral functions; classically subdivided into the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions
white matter
tissue of the CNS that consists mainly of myelinated nerve fibers
gray matter
tissue of the vertebrate CNS consisting of neuronal somata, unmyelinated fibers, and glial cells
cerebrospinal fluid
a clear fluid that fills the cerebrasl ventricles of the brain and the central canal of the spinal cord in vertebrates
medulla oblongata
in vertebrates, a cone-shaped neuronal mass that lies between the pons and the spinal cord
cerebellum
a part of the hindbrain that contributes to the corrdination of motor output and participates in the learning of motor skills