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45 Cards in this Set

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Functions of the Urinary System
1)Filtration of the blood
2)Reabsorption of vital nutrients, ions, and water
3)secretion of excess materials
4)activation of vitamin D
5)Realease of Erythropoietin by the kidney
6)Release of Renin by the kidney
7)Release of Prostaglandins
8)secretion of H(+1) and reabsorption of HCO3(-1)
Filtration of the blood occurs where?
in the glomerulus of the kidney nephron
Filtration of the blood contributes to what and how?
homeostasis by removing toxins or waste
Reabsorption of vital nutrients, ions, and water occur where?
in most parts of the kidney nephron
reabsorption of vital nutrients, ions, and water contribute to what and how?
homeostasis by conserving important materials
secretion of excess materials does what?
assists filtration in removing material from the blood
secretion of excess materials contributes to what and how?
homeostasis by preventing a buildup of certain materials in the body such as durgs, waste
Vitamin D made in the _ is converted to vitamin _ by the _
skin ; Vitamin D3 ; kidney
D3 is what?
active Vitamin D
Active Vitamin D does what and how?
assists homeostasis by increasing calcium absorption from the digestive tract
the release of Erythropoietin does what?
stimulates new RBC production
New RBC's assist what and how?
homeostasis by insuring adequate Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide transport
The release of renin by the kidney stimulates what?
the formation of a powerful vasoconstrictor called Angiotensin II
Angiotensin II asissts in homeostasis how?
by causing vasoconstriction whcih increases blood pressure
release of prostaglandins does what?
dilates kindey blood vessels
dilated blood vessels contribute to homeostasis how?
by maintaining blood flow in the kindeys
secretion of H(+1) and reabsorption of HCO3 (-1) does what?
eliminates excess hydrogen ions and conserves buffer material such as bicarbonate
How does that contribute to (secretion H and reapsorption of HCO3) homeostasis?
by controlling acid/base conditions in body fluids
What's the function of the renal artery
transports oxygenated blood from the heart and aorta to the kidney for filtration
what's the function of the renal vein?
transports filtered and deoxygenated blood from the kidney to the posterior vena cava and then the heart
What's the function of the renal column?
a passageway located between the renal pyramids found in the medulla and used as a space for blood vessels
What's the function of the nephron?
the physiological unit of the kidney used for filtration of blood and reabsorption and secretion of materials
the capsule?
the outer membrane that encloses, supports and protects the kidney
cortex?
the outer layer of the kidney that contains most of the nephron; the main site of filtration, reabsorption, and secretion
medulla?
inner core of the kidney that contains the pyramids, columns, papillae, calyces, pelvis, and parts of the nephron not located in the cortex; used for salt, water, and urea absorption
renal pyramids
triangular shaped units in the medulla that house the loops of Henle and collecting ducts of the nephron; site for the counter current system that concentrates salt and conserves water and urea
renal papilla
the tip of the renal pyramid that releases urine into a calyx
calyx
a collecting sac surrounding the renal papilla that transports urine from the papilla the the renal pelvis
renal pelvis
collects urine from all the calyces in the kidney
ureter
transports urine from the renal pelvis to the bladder
Afferent Arteriole
transports arterial blood to the glomerulus for filtration
Efferent Arteriole
transports filtered blood from the glomerulus, through the peritubular capillaries and the vasa recta, and to the kidney venous system
Glomerulus
1)the site for blood filtration; operates as a nonspecific filter, in that, it will remove both useful and non-useful material
the product of the glomerulus is called _.
filtrate
Bowman's Capsule
a sac that encloses Bowman's Capsule and transfers filtrate from the glomerulus to the proximal convoluted tubule (PCT)
Proximal Convoluted Tubule (PCT)
1)a thick, constantly actively segment of the nephron that reabsorbs most of the useful substances of the filtrate
2)the primary site for secretion
What substances are absorbed through the tubule and what percent of them?
sodium (65%), water (65%), bicarbonate (90%), chloride (50%), and glucose (nearly 100%)
secretion
elimination of drugs, waste, and hydrogen ions
Descending Limb of the Loop of Henle info
1)a part of the counter current multiplier
2)freely permeable to water and realtively impermeable to solutes (salt particles) 3)receives filtrate from the PCT, allows water to be absorbed and sends "salty" filtrate on the next segment (saves water and passes the salt)
Ascending Limb of the Loop of Henle info
1)a part of the counter current multiplier
2)impermeable to water and actively transports (reabsorbs) salt (NaCl) to the interstitial fluid of the pyramids in the medulla (saves salt and passes the water)
3)the passing filtrate becomes dilute and the interstitium becomes hyperosmotic
Distal Convoluted Tubule (DCT)info
1)receives dilute fluid from the ascending limb of the loop of Henle
2)variable active portion of the nephron
when _ hormone is present _ is reabsorbed and _ is secreted. _ and _ follow the sodium.
aldosterone; sodium; potassium; water; chloride
collecting duct receives fluid from _
the DCT
collective duct info
1)variably active portion of the Nephron
2)when antidiuretic hormone (ADH)is present, this duct will become porous to water
3) Water from the collecting duct fluid then moves by osmosis into the salty (hyperosmotic) interstitium of the medulla
4) this is the last segment to save water for the body
peritubular capillaries
1)transport reabsorbed materials from the PCT and DCT into kidney veins and eventually back into the general circulation
2) help complete the conservation process (reabsorption) that takes place in the kidney