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40 Cards in this Set

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4 Concepts of Cell Theory
1. Cells are the basic structural & functional unit of life
2. what an organism can do is dependent on the individual and collective activities of its cells
3. subcellular structures define function of cells
4. cells arise from other cells
cytology
The study of cells
Name the three regions of a typical animal cell
Plasma Membrane, Cytoplasm, Nucleus
Plasma Membrane
forms the boundary and regulates what enters and leaves a cell.
Cytoplasm
is the area between the plasma membrane and the nucleus, and includes cytosol, organelles & inclusion bodies
Nucleus
the control center which contains genetic information and includes the nuclear envelope, nucleoplasm, chromatin and nucleolus.
describe the Fluid Mosaic Model for the structure of the plasma membrane
The Fluid Mosaic Model represents the plasma membrane as a thin bilayer of phospholipids interspersed with protein molecules and cholesterol, and carbohydrates sticking off of the external surface. The phospholipid bilayer is made up of molecules of phospholipids which orient their hydrophilic heads toward the extracellular and intercellular fluids, while the hydrophobic fatty acid tails face the interior of the membrane. The proteins which make up 50% of the weight, but little of the volume are described as either Integral or Peripheral
Name the two general types of proteins associated with the plasma membrane
Integral Proteins, Peripheral Proteins
Integral Proteins
which are embedded in the phospholipid bilayer, function as receptors for hormones, enzymes or neurotransmitters, or if they span the entire width of the membrane, they are called Transmembrane Integral Proteins and are responsible for the transportation of substances across the membrane.
Peripheral Proteins
are loosely attached to either lipids or integral proteins and they either act as a receptor for enzymes or support the plasma membrane allowing it to change shape.
4 Concepts of Cell Theory
1. Cells are the basic structural & functional unit of life
2. what an organism can do is dependent on the individual and collective activities of its cells
3. subcellular structures define function of cells
4. cells arise from other cells
cytology
The study of cells
Name the three regions of a typical animal cell
Plasma Membrane, Cytoplasm, Nucleus
Plasma Membrane
forms the boundary and regulates what enters and leaves a cell.
Cytoplasm
is the area between the plasma membrane and the nucleus, and includes cytosol, organelles & inclusion bodies
Nucleus
the control center which contains genetic information and includes the nuclear envelope, nucleoplasm, chromatin and nucleolus.
describe the Fluid Mosaic Model for the structure of the plasma membrane
The Fluid Mosaic Model represents the plasma membrane as a thin bilayer of phospholipids interspersed with protein molecules and cholesterol, and carbohydrates sticking off of the external surface. The phospholipid bilayer is made up of molecules of phospholipids which orient their hydrophilic heads toward the extracellular and intercellular fluids, while the hydrophobic fatty acid tails face the interior of the membrane. The proteins which make up 50% of the weight, but little of the volume are described as either Integral or Peripheral
Name the two general types of proteins associated with the plasma membrane
Integral Proteins, Peripheral Proteins
Integral Proteins
which are embedded in the phospholipid bilayer, function as receptors for hormones, enzymes or neurotransmitters, or if they span the entire width of the membrane, they are called Transmembrane Integral Proteins and are responsible for the transportation of substances across the membrane.
Peripheral Proteins
are loosely attached to either lipids or integral proteins and they either act as a receptor for enzymes or support the plasma membrane allowing it to change shape.
The plasma membrane is consists of a bilayer of phospholipids with proteins and cholesterol interspersed within this bilayer. What is the general function of the cholesterol?
The function of cholesterol in the plasma membrane is to stabilize the membrane and keep it flexible
Name three factors that affect the ability of a substance to pass through the plasma membrane.
Size, Lipid solubility and the presence of a protein carrier or channel.
Microvilli
fingerlike projections which increase the surface area of a cell thereby increasing its rate of absorption
Tight Junctions
areas where adjacent cells are held together by a fused plasma membrane which creates a barrier to prevent materials from passing between cells.
Desmosomes
are mechanical links between cells which hold the cells in a sheet.
Gap Junction
are tiny channels which connect cells and allow material to pass directly from one cell to another
Single Diffusion
when a usually small, lipid soluble molecule (i.e. O2 or CO2) pass through the phospholipid bilayer down the concentration gradient from an area of high concentration to an area of lesser concentration
Facilitated Diffusion
when a carrier or channel protein allows material to pass through the membrane and down the concentration gradient.
Osmosis
is the diffusion of water though a selectively permeable membrane.
Isotonic Solutions
Solutions with the same concentration of solutes as the concentration with in cells. Cells retain their shape and size
Hypertonic Solutions
Solutions with a grater concentration of solutes as the concentration with in cells. Cells lose water and shrink.
Hypotonic Solutions
olutions with a lesser concentration of solutes as the concentration with in cells. Cells expand and lyse.
Briefly, describe how does active transport mechanisms differ from passive transport mechanisms.
Active Transport Mechanisms require cells to split ATP to provide energy, where as Passive Transport Mechanisms utilize the omnipresent kinetic energy with the cell.
Glycoprotein
sugar attached to a protein on outside of plasma membrane
Glycolipid
sugar attached to a lipid on outside of plasma membrane
Glycocalyx
sugar coat on outside of plasma membrane
Functions of Plasma Membrane
1. regulate what enters and leaves a cell
2. form a boundary
3. receptors for enzymes, hormones and neurotransmitters
4. cell to cell recognition
Diffusion
the net movement of molecules from an area of high concentration down the concentration gradient to an area of lesser concentration fueled by kinetic energy
Osmotic Pressure
the sucking force which tries to move water to dilute a solution. It is proportional to the concentration of solutes that can not pass thru the membrane. The total number of solutes particles determines the osmolarity.
Tonicity
the ability of a solution to change the shape of cells by alternating the volume of water in those cells where solutes can not pass thru plasma membrane.