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71 Cards in this Set

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What type of flagellar arrangement has 2 or more flagella at one or both poles of the cell?
Lophotrichous
What type of flagellar arrangement has a single polar flagellum?
Monotrichous
What type of flagellar arrangement has flagella distributed over the entire cell?
Peritrichous
What is sporogenesis/sporulation?
Endospore formation
What is sporogenesis initiated by?
Adverse environmental conditions.
What is germination?
Formation of a new cell from an endospore.
What triggers germination?
Favorable growth conditions & physical/chemical damage to the endospore's coat.
What are the 3 basic shapes of bacteria?
Coccus (spherical), bacillus (rod) & spiral.
What is a diplococci?
Cocci that divide & remain attached in pairs.
What is streptococci?
Cocci that divide & remain attached in chainlike patterns
What are tetrads?
Cocci that divide & remain in groups of 4.
What are sarcinae?
Cocci that divide on 3 planes and remain in groups of 8.
What are staphylococci?
Cocci that divide on multiple planes & remain in grape-like clusters.
What are coccobacilli?
Bacilli that are oval and resemble cocci.
What are vibrios?
Spiral bacteria that look like curved rods.
What are spirilla?
Spiral bacterial that look like corkscrews & are inflexible. Use flagella to move.
What are spirochetes?
Spiral bacteria that look like corkscrews & are flexible. Use axial filaments to move.
What other type of bacterial shapes are there?
Star, square, flat & triangular.
Are bacteria monomorphic?
Yes, most maintain a single shape. But sometimes environmental conditions can force them to change.

Rhizobium are pleomorphic.
What are 4 differences between procaryotic & eucaryotic cells?
* Pro DNA is not enclosed in a nuclear membrane.
* Pro lacks membrane-bound organelles.
* Pro DNA is not associated with histones.
* Pro cell walls have peptidoglycan.
What is the main function of: cell wall?
Protect from osmotic lysis.
What is the main function of: endospore?
Resting
What is the main function of: fimbriae?
Attachment to surfaces
What is the main function of: Flagella?
Motility
What is the main function of: Glycocalyx?
Attachment to surfaces, protection from phagocytes.
What is the main function of: pili?
Transfer of genetic material.
What is the main function of: Plasma membrane?
Cell wall formation, selective permeability.
What is the main function of: Ribosomes?
Protein synthesis.
Of what value is: metachromatic granules?
Phosphate storage for nucleic acids & ATP.
Of what value is: polysaccharide granules?
Contain glycogen & starch for carbon & energy
Of what value is: Lipid inclusions?
Carbon reserve
Of what value is: Sulfur granules?
Energy reserve
Of what value is: Carboxysomes
An important Calvin-cycle enzyme
Of what value is: gas vacuoles
buoyancy
Why is an endospore called a resting structure?
It is ametabolic (it's not growing and dividing). This & it's tough construction allows it to survive harsh envi conditions for long periods of time.
What would happen if bacteria were placed in distilled water?
Water would enter the cells & create high osmotic pressure. They would NOT lyse.
What would happen if bacteria were placed in distilled water with lysozyme?
Water would move into the cells, and the weakened cell walls wouldn't be able to stand the osmotic pressure.
What would happen if bacteria were placed in a solution of lysozyme & 10% sucrose?
This is an isotonic solution, so there wouldn't be any net movement of water. Even though the integrity of the cell walls has been compromised, they wouldn't burst.
What would happen if gram-neg bacteria is placed in distilled water w/ penicillin?
Nothing. Penicillin doesn't penetrate the outer membrane of gram negative cells, and cells must be actively growing for penicillin to have an effect (this wouldn't happen in distilled water).
Sims/diffs between: simple diffusion & facilitated diffusion.
Both allow material to cross the plasma membrane down the concentration gradient without using energy.

Facilitated requires specific carrier proteins & reaches equilibrium faster than simple
Sims/diffs between: active transport & facilitated diffusion.
Both require specific carrier proteins to move material across the membrane.

Active transport requires the expenditure of energy.
Sims/diffs between: active transport & group translocation.
Both move material across the membrane with an expenditure of energy.

In group trans, the substance being transported is chemically changed during transport.
What type of bacteria lacks cell walls?
Mycoplasmas
What are some characteristics of the cell walls of gram-positive bacteria?
* Teichoic acid
* A lot of peptidoglycan
Why does the gram-positive cell maintain the purple color?
The thicker cell wall prevents the purple from escaping during decolorization.
Why is penicillin ineffective against gram-negative cells?
The outer layer of the gram negative cells usually prevents the antibiotic from entering.
How do molecules enter gram-negative cells?

Gram-positive cells?
Porins & other channel proteins in the outer membranes allow passage of small water-soluble molecules.

Diffusion.
How does a cell get glucose from a starch polymer?
Amylase, an extracellular enzyme, hydrolyzes starch into disaccharide & monosaccharide units. Maltase, a carrier protein, hydrolyzes maltose and moves one glucose unit into the cell. Glucose can be transported by group translocation as glucose-6-phosphate.
What is the main function of: chloroplasts?
Photosynthesis
What is the main function of: rough endoplasmic reticulum
Protein synthesis
What is the main function of: Golgi complex
Secretion
What is the main function of: Lysosomes
Digestive enzyme storage
What is the main function of: Mitochondria
ATP production
What are two organelles that support the idea that eucaryotes developed from procaryotes?
Mitochondria & chloroplasts
How are mitochondria similar to procaryotes?
The inner membrane of a mitochondrion is arranged in folds similar to mesosomes. ATP is generated on this membrane just as it is in procaryotic plasma membranes. Mitochondria can reproduce by binary fission, and they have circular DNA & 70S ribosomes.
How would a eucaryotic cell ingest a procaryotic cell?
By phagocytosis.
How would a eucaryotic cell ingest a virus?
Pinocytosis or endocytosis.
How can procaryotes be smaller than eucaryotes and still carry on functions of life?
B/c they have all the molecules needed to carry on metabolic activities.
What are the minimum organelles a eucaryote must contain?
Nucleus, chloroplast, mitochondrion, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi complex.
How are eubacterial & archaeobacterial cells sim/diff?
Differ in their cell wall & plasma membrane composition.

Similar in theier basic procaryotic architecture.
What are the characteristics of eubacteria?
No nuclear membrane, no membrane-bound organelles, peptidoglycan-containing cell wall.
Who was John Needham?
A proponent of the theory of spontaneous generation.
What are the characteristics of a gram-positive bacterial cell wall?
Many layers of peptidoglycan
Thick, rigid
Contain teichoic acids
What are the characteristics of a gram-negative bacterial cell wall?
One or a few layers of peptidoglycan
An outer membrane
No teichoic acids
Suseptible to mechanical breakage b/c of lack of peptidoglycan.
What is a protoplast?
A wall-less cell.
What is the plasma membrane made of in procaryotes?

In eucaryotes?
Phospholipids.

Phospholipids & carbs & sterols.
What type of bacteria are capable of forming endospores?
Certain gram-positive bacteria.
What are enzymes made of?
Some are just proteins, but most are apoenzymes & cofactors (together = holoenzyme)
What is a cofactor?
It works together with an apoenzyme to form a holoenzyme.

It can be either a metal ion, or a complex organic molecule called a coenzyme.
What is allosteric inhibition?
An enzyme inhibitor binds to a site on the enzyme other than the substrate's binding site. The active site then changes shape & becomes non-functional.
What is the electron transport chain?
A mechanism of oxidative phosphorlyation.