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47 Cards in this Set

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Definition of cell
cells are the structural units of all living things
Principle of complementarity
All the biochemical activities of cells are dictated by the relative number of their specific sub cellular structures
The activity of an organism
depends on both the individual and the collective activities of its cells
Plasma memebrane
defines the extent of the cell. separates intracellular from extracellular fluids.
Fluid mosaic model
plasma membrane is thin and composed of a double layer of lipid molecules w protein molecules dispersed in it. the form constantly changes like fluid
Glycolipids
phospholipids with attached sugar groups, found only on the outer plasma membrane surface and make up 5% of the total membrane lipid.
lipid rafts
saturated phospholipids packed together tightly. less fluid than the rest of the membrane. able to include or exclude specific protiens
Integral protiens
involved in transport they make channels or become carriers for substances.
peripheral protiens
on the peripheries of the membrane help w support and can help change cell shape during cell division
glycocalyx
"sugar covering" the fuzzy sticky area of the cell surface helps cells recognize eachother.
microvilli
"little shaggy hairs" extensions of the plasma membrane that protect from an exposed cell surface.
Tight Junctions
extent throughout the surface and around the perimeter of an epithelial cell and seal it tightly to adjacent cells.
Desmosomes
a submicroscopic space that space that separates the opposing cell membranes and intra cellular keratin fibers anchor trans membrane glycoproteins that bind cells together(adhering junction)
Gap junctions
or nexus, tubular passageways and channels exist between cells and small ions and molecules pass from cell to cell. (smooth and cardiac muscle have these)
interstitial fluid
rich "soup" that contains vitamins, sugars fatty acids, hormones, and waste products the cell must extract this in exact amounts to be healthy.
passive process
items flow out of the cell w no exertion from the cell.
active process
cell provides the metabolic energy needed to move the substance across the cell membrane.
Diffusion
tendency of molecules or ions to scatter evenly through the environment.
simple diffusion
non polar and lipid soluable substances difuse directly through the lipid bi layer
example- oxygen continuously diffuses into the cell
Facilitated diffusion
passive transport in which binds to protien carriers or moves through water filled protien channels
carriers
takes specific molecules across by engulfing them and transporting them to the other side of the membrane
channels
proteins that transport substances through aqueous channels from one side of the membrane to another
osmosis
occurs whenever the water concentration differs on the two sides of a membrane
tonicity
the ability of a solution to change the shape or tone of cells by altering their internal water volume.
isotonic
" the same tonicity" solution has the same concentration of solutes on the outside as on the iside
hypertonic
higher concentration of solutes outside the cell.. the cell shrinks and crenates
hypotonic
higher concentration of solutes inside the cell. it expands and lyse
Filtration
process that forces water and solutes through a membrane or capallary wall by fluid or hydrostatic pressure.
pressure gradient
the gradient for filtration is a pressure gradient that pushes solute containing fluid from a higher pressure area to a lower pressure area.
Active transport
requires carrier proteins that combine specifically and reversibly with transported substances
solute pumps
move solutes mainly ions such as NA+ , K+, ca2+, ,up hill against the concentration gradient. the cells must expend the energy of ATP
vessicular transport
large particle are transported across plasma and intracellular membranes this way
excocytosis
"out of the cell" moving substances from the cells interior to the exterior
endocytosis
"within the cell" moving substances across the cell membrane into the cell from the external environment
pahgocytosis
"cell eating" the type of endocytosis in which some relatively large or solid material is engulfed in the cell. white blood cells are experts
pinocytosis
also called fluid phase endocytosis " cell drinking" a bit of enfolded plasma membrane surrounds a very small volume of extra cellular fluid containing dissolved molecules.
Membrane potential
or voltage is an electrical potential energy resulting from the separatioon of oppositely charged particles.
cytoplasm
the cellular material between the plasma membrane and the nucleus.
cytoplasmic organelles
are the metabolic machinery of the cell. each has a specific function.
inclusions
are chemical substances tat may or may not be present depending on cell type. examples include stored nutrients like glycogen granules abundant in the liver and muscle cells.
mitochondria
are threadlike membranous organelles that are the powerhouse providing most of the cells ATP. cellular respiration occurs here.
Ribosomes
composed of proteins and variety of RNA . sites of protein synthesis.
Endoplasmic reticulum
series of membranes extending throughout the cytoplasm of the cell.
rough er
studded with ribosomes. these ribosomes manufacture all proteins secreted form cells.
smooth er
enzymes play a role in protein synthesis. site of lipid and membrane synthesis and calcium storage
Golgi apparatus
stacked and flattened membranous sacs. "traffic director" the proteins and lipids are processed and packaged in vesicles before moving to their final destination.
lysosomes
"disinegrator bodies" spherical membranes that contain digestive enzymes. vesicles of enzymes that break down particles and make them usable by the cell. demolition crew.