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78 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the basic structural unit of all plants and animals?
The outer covering of a cell, also called the plasma membrane
Cell membrane
Characteristic that allows some, but not all substances to pass through.
The lobe of the cerebrum that aid in speech.
Temporal lobe
Increased venous return to the heart causes increased
A) stroke volume
B) preload
C) cardiac output
D) force of contraction
E) all of the above
E) all of the above
Action potentials pass rapidly from one cardiac muscle cell to another because of
A) intercalated disks and numerous gap junctions
B) large nerves with branches going to each cardiac muscle cell.
C) the large voltage of cardiac action potentials
D) the plateau phase of the action potential
E) open Ca2+ channels
A) intercalated disks and numerous gap junctions
During the period of ejection in the cardiac cycle, the atrioventricular valves are__________ and the semilunar valves are __________.
A) closed, closed
B) closed, open
C) open, closed
D) open, open
B) closed, open
Cerebrospinal fluid can be found in the:
A) occipital space
B) epidural space
C) subarachnoid space
D) pia matter space
C) subarachnoid space
When normal arterial blood pressure decreases, baroreceptors cause a response that
A) decreases heart rate
B) decreases stroke volume
C) returns blood pressure to normal
D) results in parasympathetic stimulation of the heart
E) all of the above
C) returns blood pressure to normal
Which of these conditions is most likely to cause bradycardia?
A) ectopic action potentials in the atria
B)damage to the tricuspid valve
C) excessive sympathetic stimulation
D) excessive parasympathetic stimulation
E) too much coffee
D) excessive parasympathetic stimulation
The second heart sound, described as "dupp" is actually the sound of the
A) atria closing
B) ventricles closing
C) atrioventricular valves closing
D) semilunar valves closing
E) heart slapping the liver
D) semilunar valves closing
A) is the extent to which the ventricular walls are stretched
B) if increased, causes a decrease in cardiac output
C) is the pressure in the aorta which contracting ventricles must overcome
D) is part of the extrinsic regulation of the heart
E) all of these
A) is the extent to which the ventricular walls are stretched
If blood pH decreases and blood carbon dioxide increases,
A) heart rate increases
B) stroke volume decreases
C) increased parasympathetic stimulation of the heart occurs
D) the change is detected by chemoreceptors in the pulmonary arteries
E) all of these
A) heart rate increases
Cells that produce new cartilage matrix are called
A) chondroblasts
B) chondrocytes
C) chondroclasts
D) osteoblasts
E) fibroblasts
A) chondroblasts
Which of these locations does NOT contain red marrow in an adult?
A) ribs
B) skull
C) proximal femur
D) sternum
E) vertebrae
B) skull
What percent of the total body water is found within the intracellular compartment?
25% of the total body water is found in what compartment?
The extracellular compartment
What are the different compartments where body fluid can be found?
Intracellular compartment (largest)
Extracellular compartment
Intravascular compartment (division of the extracellular compartment)
Interstitial compartment (division of the extracellular compartment)
Do infants have a higher percentage of total body water than adults or lower? Why?
Infants have a higher percentage of TBW because infants have less fat than adults and because the extra water is needed to support the high metabolic rates associated with growth of infants.
Define solvent
A substance that disolves other substances forming a solution. Water is the universal solvent.
Dehydration can be caused from which of the following:
A) Gastrointestional losses
B) Increased insensible loss
C) Increased sweating
D) Internal losses
E) All of the above
E) All of the above
Dehydration can also be caused by plasma losses.
What is the primary sign of overhydration?
What are ions with a positive charge called?
What are ions with a negative charge called?
What is the most prevalent cation in the extracellular fluid?
Sodium (Na+)
What is the most prevalent cation in the intracellular fluid?
Potassium (K+)
_________ plays a major role in muscle contraction and nervous impulse transmission.
Calcium (Ca++)
What is the anion that plays a major role in fluid balance and renal function?
Chloride (Cl-)
What is known as the principal buffer?
Bicarbonate (HCO3-) because it neutralizes the highly acidic hydrogen ion (H+) and other organic acids.
What anion acts as a buffer primarily in the intracellular space.
Phosphate (HPO4-)
When solutions on opposite sides of a semipermeable membrane are equal in concentration, they are said to be:
The difference in concentration between solutions on opposite sides of the semipermeable membrane is called:
The osmotic gradient
Define active transport
Movement of a ssubstance through a cell membrane against the osmotic gradient; opposite the normal direction of diffusion.
Diffusion and active transport differ in that:
Diffusion is passive, while active transport requires the expenditure of energy.
Diffusion of a substance through a cell membrane that requires the assistance of a "helper", or carrier protein is called:
Facilitated diffusion
The pressure exerted by the concentration of solutes on one side of the semipermeable membrane.
Osmotic pressure
Force that is exerted by the large proteins, or colloids, found in plasma.
Oncotic force, or colloid osmotic pressure.
Define dydrostatic pressure
Blood pressure of force against vessel walls created by the heart beat.
True or fales, the pH scale is inversely related to the hydrogen ion concentration in the blood.
The greater the ___________ ion concentration, the ___________ the pH.
hydrogen, lower
What is the normal pH range for humans?
Because hydrogen ions are acidic, a pH below 7.35 is referred to as:
Alkalosis is defined as a _______ concentration of hydrogenions or a pH ___________ 7.45.
low, above
What are the three mechanisms of hydrogen ion removal?
Bicarbonate buffer system
Kidney function
Blood, bone marrow, the liver, the spleen, and the kidneys make up what system?
The hematopoietic system
True or false: Vellus hair is short, fine and lacking pigment (similar to "peach fuzz").
____________ hair is coarse, thick, and pigmented.
Terminal hair. This type of hair is found on the eyebrows, scalp, armpits, groin, and on the faces and bodies of males.
After birth, the _______ _____________ is the primary site of blood cell production and in adultood is the exclusive site of hematopoiesis.
bone marrow
What is the hormone produced in the kidneys, and to a lesser extent the liver, and is responsible for RBC production?
The _________, an important part of the immune system, has cells that scavenge abnormal blood cells and bacteria.
Blood volume is generally what percent of total body weight?
A) 3%
B) 24%
C) 6%
D) 29%
C) 6%
What are the major determinants of the blood volume?
Red cell mass and plasma volume
Compensatory mechanisms, including vasoconstriction, tachycardia, and increased contractility help maintain adequate ____________ _____________.
tissue perfusion
What are the 4 components of blood?
Plasma, RBC's, WBC's, and platelets
True or false: Plasma proteins perform functions such as blood clotting, dismantling clots, buffering the bloods pH balance, transporting and regulating the effects of hormones, and provides a source of energy.
Glucose can/cannot diffuse across most cell membranes without the assistance of insulin.
The oxygen-bearing molecule in the RBC is called:
hemoglobin. It is made up of iron-rich red pigment called heme and a protein called globin.
True or false: The lower the pH, the more redily hemoglobin will release oxygen.
True or false: Alkalosis makes hemogloin release oxygen more readily.
False. Alkalosis, or a high pH, makes the hemoglobin bind more thightly to the oxygen molecules.
A ______________ in pH, and an increase in body temperature will cause hemoglobin to _______________ oxygen.
decrease, release
True or false: In carbon monoxide poisoning oxygen molecules are released more readily.
False. Carbon monoxide causes oxygen molecules to be held more tightly and this inhibits the release of oxygen into the peripheral tissues. This contributes to hypoxia, acidosis, and eventually shock.
Define erythropoiesis
Process of RBC production
Define hemolysis
Destruction of RBC's
The trapping of RBC's by an organ such as the spleen is known as:
____________ is the packed cell volume of RBC's per unit of blood.
WBC's are called:
What is the primary function of WBC's?
Protection from foreign invasion.
Blood cells that are do not freely move within the blood stream, but instead are attached to the walls of the blood cells are said to be:
The process of _______________ causes marginated cells to return to the circulating blood in response to stress, corticosteroids, seizures, epinephrine, and exercise.
True or false: Marginated leukocytes leave the blood vessels through diapedesis.
True. This enables leukocytes to squeeze between the cells lining the blood vessels and follow chemical signals to the site of infection.
_______________ is the movement of WBC's in response to chemical signals.
______________ is the process by which WBC's engulf and destroy an invader.
White blood cell -blasts
What are the 3 categories of WBC's?
What are the 3 classifications of granulocytes?
True or false: Eosinophils primarily function in allergic reactions.
False. Basophils function in allergic reactions. Eosinophils inactivate the chemical mediators ao acute allergic reaction, therby modulating the anaphylactic response.
What is the primary function of neutrophils?
Fighting infection
What are the "garbage collectors" of the immune system?