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114 Cards in this Set

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Movement of a chemical by the use of energy through a gradient, such as a cell membrane, in concentration or electrical potential. This movement is opposite the normal movement by diffusion.
Active Transport
The major source of energy for all chemical reactions of the body.
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
A type of connective tissue that contains large amounts of fat.
Adipose Tissue
The anterior surface at the bend of the elbow.
Antecubital Fossa
Area of the neck that is bordered by the sternocleidomastoid muscle, the anterior midline midline of the neck, and the inferior border of the madible.
Anterior Triangle
A division of the skeletal system, which includes the extremities ahd their attachments to the body.
Appendicular Region
A division of the skeletal system, which includes the head, neck, and trunk.
Axial Region
The armpit.
Axilla
A compnent of the nerve cell that conducts impulses away from the nerve cell body.
Axon
The noncellular layer in an epithelial cell that secures the overlying epithelial tissues.
Basement Membrane
Hollow areas within the body that contain organs and organ systems.
Body Cavities
Striated involuntary muscle that has the capacity to generate and conduct electrical impulses.
Cardiac Muscle
Area of the anterior triangle of the neck that contains the carotid artery and internal jugular vein.
Carotid Triangle
Plates of shiny conective tissue that are lubricated by synovial fluid, which provides a slippery surface over which the bones may move freely.
Cartilage
A strcture that surrounds protoplasm, consisting of the fatty substances that seperate one cell from its neighbors; also called the plasma membrane.
Cell Membrane
Made up of protoplasm or cytoplasm, specialized for particular functions, these are the building blocks of life.
Cells
Organelles that are essential in cell division.
Centrioles
Structures containing DNA within the cell's nucleus. Human cells contain 23 pairs of chromosomes.
Chromosomes
Hair-like microtubule projections on the surface of a cell that can move materials over the cell surface.
Cilia
A fluid-filled body cavity that contains organs and connective tissue.
Coelom
Rows of tall, thin epithelial cells.
Columnar
The difference in concentrations of a substance on either side of a selectively permeable membrane.
Concentration Gradient
The hollow portion of the skull.
Cranial Cavity
Shrinkage of a cell that results when too much water leaves the cell through osmosis.
Crenation
Rows of square-shaped epithelial cells.
Cuboidal
A viscous liquid matrix that supports all internal cellular structures and provides a medium for intracellular transport; also called protoplasm.
Cytoplasm
A component of the nerve cell that recieves electricl impulses and conducts them toward the cell body.
Dendrite
The genetic material found on the chromosomes in the cell's nucleus.
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)
Sweating.
Diaphoresis
Movement of particles or solutes from an area of high concentration to low concentration.
Diffusion
The two sets of 23 chromosomes, one set donated by each parent, found in all cells, except sperm and ova cells, which only contain a total of 23 chromosomes.
Diploid
Potentially life-threatening heart rhythm disturbances.
Dysrhythmias
Salt or acid substances that become ionic conductors when dissolved in a solvent (ie, water). Chemicals dissolved in the blood.
Electrolytes
Negatively charged particles that are part of the make-up of an atom.
Electrons
The smallest unit of a single chemical substance, such as Hydrogen, Oxygen, or Potassium.
Element
The uptake of material through the cell membrane by a membrane-bound droplet or vesicle formed within the cell's protoplasm.
Endocytosis
A series of membranes in which proteins and fats are manufactured.
Endoplasmic Reticulum
The release of secretions from cells that have been accumulated in vesicles.
Exocytosis
Substances located outside of the cell membrane.
Extracellular
Fluid outside of the cell, in which most of the body's supply of sodium is contained.
Extracellular Fluid (ECF)
Process whereby a carrier molecule moves substances in or out of cells from areas of higher to lower concentration.
Facilitated Diffusion
A process of the movement of water out of plasma across the capillary membrane into the interstitial space.
Filtration
A tail-like microtubule structure capable of motion to propel the cell.
Flagellum
Areas in the infant's skull where the sutures between the skull bones have not yet closed.
Fontanels
Bony structures that attach the limbs to the body.
Girdles
A set of membranes in the protoplasm involved in the formation of sugars and complex proteins.
Golgi Complex
The 23 chromosomes found in a sperm or ova cell.
Haploid
An abnormal accumulation of bloody fluid within the pleural cavity following trauma.
Hemothorax
The maintenance of a relatively stable internal physiologic environment.
Homeostasis
Blood pressure in the vessel walls created by the heart beating pushes the water out of the capillary into the interstitial space.
Hydrostatic Pressure
Abnormal elevation of serum potassium levels.
Hyperkalemia
An abnormally high sodium level in the blood.
Hypernatremia
A diabetic emergency that occurs from a relative insulin deficiency, resulting in marked hyperglycemia but the abscence of ketones and acidosis.
Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic Nonketotic Coma (HHNC)
A solution with an osmotic pressure greater than that of body fluid (is, a cell placed in the solution will shrink).
Hypertonic
Low blood glucose concentrations resulting in symptoms such as rapid respirations; pale, moist skin; and dizziness.
Hypoglycemia
Abnormally decreased potassium levels in the blood.
Hypokalemia
An abnormally low sodium level in the blood.
Hyponatremia
A solution with an osmotic pressure less than that of body fluid (is, a cell placed in the solution will swell).
Hypotonic
A state of decreased oxygenation.
Hypoxia
Skin, the covering of the body surface.
Integument
Substances, such as the organelles, that are found inside the cell membrane.
Intracellular
Fluid within cells in which most of the body's supply of potassium is contained.
Intracellular Fluid (ICF)
Not normally under conscious control, as in muscle.
Involuntary
Protein-lined pores or transport channels, specifically sized fore each substance, which allow electrolyte movements among the cells.
Ion Channel
A solution that has the same osmotic pressure as the cells and body fluids, (is, a cell placed in the solution will neither shrink nor swell).
Isotonic
The point where two or more bones come together, allowing movement to occur.
Joint
A sequence of reactions in an organism in which oxidation of acids provides energy for storagein phosphate bonds (as in ATP); also called the tricarboxylic acid cycle.
Krebs Cycle
Tough white bands of tissue that bind joints together, conecting bones to cartilage.
Ligaments
The doubly layer of fatty components that create the outside of the cell membrane.
Lipid Bilayer
The process of disintegration or breakdown of cells that occurs when excess water enters the cell through osmosis.
Lysis
Membrane-bound vesicles that contain a variety of enzymes functioning as a cell's digestive system.
Lysosomes
The space between the lungs, in the center of the chest, that contains the heart, trachea, mainstem bronchi, part of the esophagus, and large blood vessels.
Mediastinum
A specialized form of cell division that results in the production of mature sperm and ova.
Meiosis
Hollow filamentous structures that make up carious components of the cell.
Microtubules
The division of one cell into two genetically identical and equal daughter cells.
Mitosis
Abnormal and persistent muscle spasms.
Myoclonus
Collectively, the name for the connective and supporting tissues of the nervous tissue.
Neuroglia
Small rod-like organelles that function as the metabolic centerof the cell and produce ATP.
Mitochondria
The main functional unit of the nervous system.
Neuron
Uncharged particles that are part of the make up of an atom.
Neutrons
Smooth muscle tissue.
Nonstriated
The membrane that surrounds the nucleous of the cell.
Nuclear Envelope
Rounded, dense structures in the protoplasm that contain RNA and synthesize proteins.
Nucleoli
The nerve center, or central body, of the cell, embedded within the protoplasm.
Nucleus
An opposing pressure to hydrostatic pressure, it pulls water back into the capillary from the intersititial space in an effort to create balance.
Oncotic Force
Different types of tissues working together to perform a particular function.
Organ
The internal structures within the cell.
Organelles
Any living thing considered as a whole, made up of various organ systems.
Organism
A group of organs that have a common purpose, such as the skeleton and muscles, circulatory, and respiratory systems, among others.
Organ System
The movement of a solvent, such as water, from an area of low solute concentration to one of concentration through a selectively permeable membrane to equalize concentrations of a solute on both sides of the membrane.
Osmosis
The measure of the tendency of water to move by osmosis across a membrane.
Osmotic Pressure
Process in which oxygen is used chemically to produce energy from carbohydrates.
Oxidative Metabolism
The portion of the serous membrane that lines the walls of the trunk cavities.
Parietal Portion
The region around the heart.
Pericardial Cavity
An abnormal accumulation of fluid within the pericardial sac.
Pericardial Effusion
the fluid-filled potential space between the layers of the pericardium.
Pericardial Sac
A condtion that occurs as fluid accumulates around the heart, which restrcts the heart's stroke volume.
Pericardial Tamponade
The serrous membranes that surround the heart.
Pericardium
The membrane that covers the bones of the skull and all other bones, except at articular surfaces.
Periosteum
The nerves that extend from the brain and spinal cord to various parts of the body by exiting between the vertebrae of the spine.
Peripheral Nerves
An inflammation of the peritonitis.
Peritonitis
Endocytosis involving solid particles.
Phagocytosis
Endocytosis involving liquid.
Pinocytosis
Serous membranes surrounding the lungs.
Pleura
The potential space between the visceral and parietal pleura.
Pleural Cavity
An abnormal accumulation of fluid within the pleural cavity.
Pleural Effusion
The small amount of lubricating fluid that fills the pleural cavity.
Pleural Fluid
An abnormal accumulation of air within the pleural cavity.
Pneumothorax
Positively charged particles that are part of the make-up of an atom.
Protons
A viscous liquid matrix that supports all internal cellular structures and provides a medium for intracellular transport; also called cytoplasm.
Protoplasm
A single layer of epithelial cells of varying heights, all of which attach to the basement membrane, but all do not reach the free surface.
Pseudostratified Epithelium
The space behind the knee.
Popliteal Fossa
Area of the neck containing the lymph nodes, brachial plexus, spinal accessory nerve, and a portion of the subclavian artery.
Posterior Triangle
Replacing dead cells with new cells on an ongoing basis.
Remodeling