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43 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what is the integumentary system?
what are the functions of the integumentary system?
protection, sensation, temperature regulation, vitamin D protection, excretion.
what is the epidermis?
outer part of the skin, made of stratified squamous epithelium, no blood vessels, older cells are filled with keratin and die, melanin (pigment), older cells are pushed superficially.
thick skin
palms, bottom of feet
many layers in stratum corneum
thin skin
lacks stratum lucidum, has hair
skin color
melanocytes produce melanin in melanosomes
vitamin d
produced by cells in epidermis
inner part of the skin, made of connective tissue, 2 layers - deep: reticular layer and superficial: papillary layer (fingerprints)
not part of the school, also called subcutaneous tissue, a lot of adipose tissue
accessory skin structures
hair, glands, nails
hair follicle
hair bulb - base of hair root
hair root
hair grows in stages: growth, then rest.
matrix cells that divide, get keratinized, then die.
inner core of hair
what determines hair color?
smooth muscles (arrector pili)
contraction makes hair stand on end, improves heat insulation, creates larger appearance.
sebaceous glands
produce oily secretion, holocrine type, the duct usually opens into upper part of the hair follicle
sweat glands
merocrine or aprocrine with openings directly on the surface or into the hair follicle
ceruminous glands
modified merocrine sweat glands, produce cerumen
mammary gland
modified aprocrine sweat glands, produce milk.
dead cells, modified stratum comeum
what are functions of the skeletal system?
support, protection, movement, storage (calcium, phosphorus, fat), blood cell production.
what is the most important cartilage for the skeletal system?
hyaline cartilage (elastic)
what forms cartilages extracellular matrix?
chondroblasts (build)
what live in lacunae (small holes)?
chondrocytes (maintain)
what is perichondrium?
connective layer covering cartilage to protect the cartilage
what is articular cartilage?
cover bones in joints (lubrication and low friction)
what is the extracellular matrix of bones?
calcium phosphate for storage
what is ossification or osteogenesis?
the process of creating bone, using osteoblasts
what are osteocytes?
live in lacunae, they are connected to each other by processes called canaliculi (small canals), maintain bones
they destroy bone by reabsorbing bone matrix by decalcifying in an acidic environment or releasing proteolytic enzymes.
what are bone cells produced from?
stem cells.
which two ways can bone fibers be oriented?
woven- oriented randomly, usually new bone, remodeling may take place to remove woven bone and replace with lamellar
lamellar- same direction, sheets called lamellae, tougher and stronger
which are the two densities of bones?
cancellous or compact
has trabeculae oritned along the stress in the bone formed by lamellae
much more dense
osteon- circular, formed by cylinders
central canal with blood vessels
concentric lamellae with osteocytes

outer surface= circumferential lamellae
perforating canals- run perpendicular to the long axis

types of bones
long (limbs), short (wrist), flat (skull) or irregular
long bones
limbs, toes, fingers
diaphysis (shaft)- mostly compact bone
epiphysis- develops from different center of ossification (hump on end of bone)
growth occurs at the epiphyseal plate
medullary cavitiy filled with marrow (hollow inside)
periosteum- connective tissue membrane covering the bone
what do flat and irregular bones in the skull have?
sinuses filled with air instead of marrow
intramembranous ossification
on collagen membranes, development of skull bones
outside of bones are younger
endeochondral ossification
at the surface of cartilage
bone growth
length- add more bone on ends to increase length
width- rapid growth (osteon formation), slow growth (circumferential lamellae, the remodeling into osteons)
what factors are needed for bone growth?
vitamin D- absorption of calcium from intestines (lack->rickets)
vitamin C- collagen synthesis (lack->scurvy)
hormones (growth, thyroid, sex)
bone repair
hematoma formation, callus formation, callus ossification, bone remodeling